ch-4 - 1 2011-1&#24&#176 “ “ 1 Ch-4...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2011-1-  ° “ » “ 1 Ch-4. Syntax (  ): The Sentence Patterns of Language 2 2011-1- 8 ∙ “ » “ 2 What is Syntax? Any speaker of any language can produce and understand an infinite number of sentences . The cat chased the mouse. The cat chased the mouse that ate the cheese . The cat chased the mouse that ate the cheese that came from the cow . ...  All the sentences of a language cannot be stored in our mental lexicon. Syntax is a speaker’s knowledge of sentences and their structures. 3 2011-1- ˜ ∙ “ » “ 3 What the Syntax Rules Do (1) The syntactic rules combine words into phrases and phrases into sentences . 1. The President nominated a new Supreme Court justice. 2. *President the new Supreme justice Court a nominated . (2) Syntax describes the relationship between the meaning of a particular group of words and their arrangement . 3. He burps what he means . 4. He means what he burps . 4 2011-1- ˆ š ¡ » “ 4 What the Syntax Rules Do (3) Syntactic rules specify the grammatical relations of a sentence, such as subject and direct object . 5. Your dog chased my cat . 6. My cat chased your dog . (4) The rules of syntac specify constraints that sentences must ahere to. 7. (a) *The boy found. (b) *The boy found quickly. (c) *The boy found in the house. (d) The boy found the bal.. 5 2011-1- ¤ œ ¡ » “ 5 What the Syntax Rules Do 10. (a) Jack and Jill ran up the hill. (b) Jack and Jill ran the hill up. (c) Up the hill ran Jack and Jill. (d) Jack and Jill ran up the hill. (e) Jack and Jill ran the bill up. (f) Up the bill ran Jack and Jill. He ran [up the hill]: ‘ up the hill ’ is a unit . (= constituent ) Sentences are not simply strings of words with no further organization . 6 2011-1-  † “ » “ 6 Syntactic knowlege about hierarchical structures Ambiguity arises from multiple structures . ex) synthetic buffalo hides synthetic buffalo hides synthetic buffalo hides √ “buffalo hides that are synthetic” √ “hides of synthetic buffalo” 7 2011-1- X 	 Æ » “ 7 Ambiguity (  ) √ structural (syntactic) ambiguity : structural differences Flying planes can be dangerous ....
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ch-4 - 1 2011-1&#24&#176 “ “ 1 Ch-4...

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