ch-5-semantics - 1 2011-1- (ÙB¼ ª 1 Ch-5. Semantics ( ):...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2011-1- (ÙB¼ ª 1 Ch-5. Semantics ( ): The M eaning of Language 2 2011-1- øØB¼ ª 2 When you know meaning of a language, You know... When a“wor d” is meaningful ( flick ) or meaningless ( blick ) When a “sentence” is meaningful ( Jack swims ) or meaningless ( swims chemical many ). When a “word” is ambiguous ( bear ) and a “sentence” is ambiguous ( Jack saw a man with a telescope ). When two words are synonymous ( sofa and couch ) and 3 2011-1- hÚB¼ ª 3 When you know meaning of a language, You know the objects that wor ds r efer to . ( the prime minister of France ) if the words do not have reference, you know that they mean. ( the present king of France or unicorn ) You know when sentences ar e tr ue or false . (“ all kings are male .” is true/ “ all bachelors are married ” is false.) You know if a sentence is true , it entails that another is tr ue . ( Nina bathed her dogs . Nina’s dogs got wet .) 4 2011-1-¿2¼ ª 4 Semantics: study of meaning of words, phrases and sentences (1) Lexical semantics (¿2¼ª ) ~ the meanings of wor ds and their relationships (2) Phrasal or Sentential semantics (¿2¼ª ) ~ the meanings of sentences and their relationships (3) Pragmatics ( ) ~ how context affects meaning . 5 2011-1- èÙB¼ ª 5 Sentential semantics: Sentence meaning (i) Knowledge of truth of sentences ~ tr uth-conditional semantics ( è ÙB¼ * ) ~ compositional semantics (calculates truth value of a sentence by composing the meaning of smaller units) (ii) Knowledge of when one sentence entails another (iii) Knowledge of when a sentence is ambiguous 6 2011-1- èò3¼ ª 6 Sentential semantics: Tr uth-conditional semantics I f you know the meaning of a sentences , then you can determine under what conditions it is true or false . Sentences are true or false in a given situation . “ Jack swims .” true false => lying or 7 2011-1- ؼ2¼ ª 7 Sentential semantics: Truth-conditional semantics ( ؼ2¼ * ) √ tautology ( ) : always true Circles are round . A person whose is single is not married . √ contradiction ( ) : always false Circles are square. A bachelor is married. √ Paradox : impossible to ascribe a truth value. This sentence is false. truth-conditional semantics is incomplete. 8 2011-1- ¸ r&¼ ª 8 Sentential semantics: Entailment ( ) Entailment : I f one sentence is true, another is also true. I f “Jack swims beautifully” is true, “Jack swim” is true. Jack swims beautifully entails Jack swims . Entailment is one-directional . Jack swims does not entail Jack swims beautifully . Practice)) H e is a bachelor entails that… I t’s a dog entails that.....
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Phonetic during the Spring '11 term at American InterContinental University.

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ch-5-semantics - 1 2011-1- (ÙB¼ ª 1 Ch-5. Semantics ( ):...

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