Water Soluble Vitamins

Water Soluble Vitamins - Water Soluble Vitamins (B complex...

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As their names imply these vitamins are soluble in water, but not in fat. This has a big impact on how much can be stored. There is only so much water in the body and it can hold only so much of any compound. The supply of water soluble vitamins stored in the body may be as low as a few weeks for some and as high as a few months for others. This also limits the potential toxicity of water soluble vitamins. Large intakes cannot be stored and are eliminated from the body. A water soluble fraction that was once named vitamin B has been shown to contain 9 different compounds. That is why they are often referred to with a number such as B12. B VITAMINS Soluble in water and contain nitrogen Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin Pyridoxine (B6) Pantothenic Acid Folic Acid Biotin Choline Cobalimin (B12) Thiamine Disease Beriberi Also heart disorders and CNS dysfunction Children lack knee reflex Alcoholics often show deficiency Increased need with increased carbohydrate intake Functions Carbohydrate metabolism Make ribose to form RNA Maintenance of normal appetite and in normal muscle tone in G. I. tract Called the "Morale Vitamin" Deficiency ( beriberi ) became widespread with advent of polished rice . Was thought to be an infectious disease.
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Thiamine is very important for normal metabolism and energy utilization. A lack of thiamine (also known as B1) results in beriberi. Beriberi first became common in the world when polishing of rice occurred. Polishing of rice refers to the removal of the outer bran layer of the rice kernel resulting in white rice. The bran layer is where most of the B vitamins of rice are stored. If I eat white rice I will not develop beriberi. That is because I eat a varied diet and get thiamine from a number of sources. People consuming a marginal diet based solely on rice can survive as long as they consume all portions of the rice. When the bran is removed they are likely become deficient in thiamine. Beriberi was rare before the advent of polished rice. It is rare in the US today for a number of reasons. That will be discussed when we consider enrichment. Requirements Beriberi is rare in the U.S. In times of growth, pregnancy, lactation or with alcoholics, marginal deficiencies are sometimes observed. Thiamine status can be determined by measuring its level in the urine or the level of the enzyme, transketolase. Need is calculated to be about 0.5 mg/1,000 kcal Riboflavin Functions as part of a coenzyme involved in oxidation - reduction reactions FAD and FMN Riboflavin Functions The main function of riboflavin is to serve as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions. Commonly called flavin adenine dinucleotide and abbreviated
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This note was uploaded on 06/22/2011 for the course FDSCTE 201 taught by Professor Magino during the Spring '11 term at Ohio State.

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Water Soluble Vitamins - Water Soluble Vitamins (B complex...

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