Biotechnology - This is a complex topic Most of the links...

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This is a complex topic. Most of the links in the text are to brief movies or animations that might help with understanding. There will be no exam questions takak from these links. Use them if they help you understand. BIOTECHNOLOGY What is biotechnology? What are the issues affecting implementation? What can biotechnology deliver? What can we expect in the near future? Definitions Recombinant DNA - Transfer of genetic material from one source into a living cell for replication and expression. Genetic Engineering - manipulation of the gene pool using biochemical techniques. Restriction Enzymes - bacterial enzymes that cut DNA into pieces at very specific sites. Biotechnology involves transfer of the genetic information from one organism into another with the goal of having the new genetic material made into protein. This maybe done to add a trait to an organism or to have it produce large quantities of a valuable protein. In some cases a gene maybe introduced in such a way as to stop a protein from being made. Many of the first applications were medical. Why Study Biotechnology 4000 recognized genetic disorders 1% of human live births have genetic defects Major diseases have large genetic component Potential to alter specific characteristics Ability to synthesize complex protein medicines Old Technology Find mutants that can survive Carry out selective breeding for desirable traits in plants or animals Place selective pressure and breed those who respond well Differences Old Breeding Biotechnology Poorly defined Well defined changes Accept what comes Know what will come
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Limited to species No species limit Hard to control Can build in controls In classical breeding an organism that had a desirable trait was crossed or mated with another with that desirable trait with hopes that the offspring would have even more desirable traits. For example to increase milk production cows that gave high yields of milk were mated with bulls whose daughters were high producers. Over time average milk yields increased. The exact nature and number of changes that occurred were never known or understood. The genes had been altered through classical selection. In biotechnology a single gene or a very few genes with known activity are introduced or altered. The outcome is known ahead of time. Biotechnology Isolate the genetic material necessary for synthesis of a particular protein Insert the gene into another organism: Animal Plant Bacteria Yeast In biotechnology rather than crossing organisms, specific genes with desirable properties are isolated from an organism. These are then inserted into another organism by use of a vector. Common vectors include plasmids and viruses. Biotechnology was made possible by the discovery of enzymes that break DNA in very specific cites called restriction enzymes . Most enzymes break up DNA into very small pieces or into single bases. The restriction
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Biotechnology - This is a complex topic Most of the links...

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