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MODULE 1 - MODULE 1 1a Why Study Microbiology Intro to bio...

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MODULE 1 1a) Why Study Microbiology? Intro to bio of bacterial and archaeal organisms o Microbial cell structure + function o Methods of cultivation o Genetics o Phylogeny and taxonomy o Metabolic and genetic diversity Important because: o Impact on almost all biology on earth o Influenced earth development o 50%+ biomass on earth Microbiology: science of microorganisms, i.e. microbes o Very small, unicellular organisms, can’t see with naked eye o Discipline just over century old o American Society of Microbiology: largest life sci organization in world o Given rise to biology and biotechnology Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Macroorganisms none Animals, plants Microorganisms Archaea, bacteria Algae, fungi, protozoa Bacteria interact with different organisms o Bacteria fill the root nodule
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o Interaction btwn Rhizobium bacteria and plants: one of most significant in world o Bacteria convert N 2 to 2NH 3 (nitrogen gas ammonia), providing nutrients to plant What makes a cell alive? o Cells have metabolism: transform chemicals to energy o Cells grow/reproduce o Cells differentiate, form diff types of cells o Cells communicate by excreting chemical signals which are then detected o Cells can move o Cells evolve, genetic material changes, adapt to environment Why study microbiology? o Microorganisms were first life on earth o Created our biosphere allowing higher forms of life to evolve o Multicellular organisms evolved from microorganisms o 50%+ biomass on earth o Will be on earth forever If earth 4.5 billion years old, first microorganisms appeared around 4 billion years ago o No free oxygen when earth formed, reducing environment o Cyanobacterial microfossils (oxygenic photosynthesis) o Resulted in accumulation of oxygen in atmosphere Study of microorganism has contributed to our understanding of life o
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