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MODULE 10 - a Overview of Archaea Only recently recognized...

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MODULE 10 10a) Overview of Archaea Only recently recognized as group of organisms Tend to inhabit extreme environments o High temp o Acidic or alkaline pH o High salt concentrations Many actually require these extreme conditions to grow and reproduce Pathogenic examples of these do not seem to exist Phylogenetic Overview Halophilic Archaea: salt tolerant Methanogens Thermoplasmateles: similar to microplasmas, no cell wall, exist at high temp and acidic pH Subgroups; euryarchaeota, crenarchaeota Euryaechaeota: o Methanogens o Thermoplasmas: no cell wall, grow well at high temp and acidic pH o Thermococcus/pyrococcus: grow at temp above boiling water o Halophiles: grow at high salt concentrations Marine euryarchaeota and marine crenarchaeota o Only know these organisms from their DNA sequence o Marine environments usually associated with marine bacterial plankton o Comprise large fraction of bacterial biomass of ocean
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o Related to organisms that are often thermophilic, but grow at moderate or cold temp 10b) Extreme Halophiles Overview Can tolerate extremely high salt concentrations Some can grow in conditions where salt will precipitate out of solution (5M or more NaCl) Typically chemoorganotrophs and obligate aerobes Halobacterium is organism most extensively studied in this group High salt concentrations has role in stabilizing glycoproteins in cell wall Potassium ion is compatible solute in order to maintain water balance in the cell High sodium outside cell, high potassium inside cell Some can use light to generate ATP using non-photosynthetic mechanism, uses carotenoid pigment called rhodopsin instead of chlorophyll Habitats
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