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Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Psychology I- Memory: The Big Picture Memory as information processing: stages and events of memory Effortful memory o All that was studied for about 100 years, one of oldest topics, easy to study o People given a list to remember and come back a week later to recite o When we are trying to learn and remember Memory without awareness o Begun to be understood in last 15 years o When we remember things we dont realize weve remembered o Part of a general trend when conscious thought was given priority for 30, 40 years The fragility of memory o Our memories are often a distorted view of reality o Much more susceptible to distortion, bias, error than we think Stages of Memory The different timings of memory Sensory memory: happens in typically less than a second, the immediate and initial recording of sensory info in the memory system o External events sensory memory short-term memory long-term memory o Registers incoming info, allowing your brain to capture for a fleeting moment lots of faces o Attention to important or novel info: encoding o Put into short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is stored or forgotten o Long term memory: relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system Process of encoding, storage and retrieval We can have problems when we dont remember things o Info may not have been encoded properly o Could have trouble remembering info if it has gotten lost in storage o Can have trouble retrieving info but you know its not lost Effortful Memory How much information do we retain? How long do you retain info in short term memory? Rapid decay with no rehearsal Short term memory is limited in length but also how much we can hold in there Basic rule is that short term memory can only hold seven plus or minus two objects o Rule was discovered by the Bell labs, the telephone company: phone number 7 digits How long do you retain info in long term memory? o We forget much of what we learn o Ebbinghaus forgetting curve (recall, as opposed to recognition) o Gave nonsense syllables to memorize and then a recall test the next day o Retention starts at 60%, 2 days later 30%: drops then levels off, month later still had 20% o We can relearn info fairly quickly o As rehearsal increases, relearning time decreases o Suggests that the info is being retained somewhere, should be available for later use o Repetition does seem to aid memory...
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- Spring '09