module 7 notes

module 7 notes - Cognitive Psychology II Perception...

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Cognitive Psychology II: Perception, Preconceptions, and Judgement Perception o The whole is not equal to the sum of its parts o Figure and ground in perception o Gestalt principles Our knowledge and preconceptions shape our perceptions o Illusions o Perceptual set (when you expect to see something that ends up influencing what you actually perceive) Judgement under uncertainty o Heuristics in judgement (functions much like illusions) o Artificial intelligence: what use computers have in helping us understand how people think; one of the basic metaphors that helped build cognitive psychology is that you can substitute computers and the way they process info, can teach us something about how we process and think Perception Gestalt psychologists noted: whole is not equal to sum of its parts o Our thoughts and preconceptions shape what we perceive o Most intuitive would be that we perceive what’s out there o We don’t perceive reality; reality may be out there in the abstract, but our perceptions are our take on reality o We do not see exactly what is out there o Our perceptions are shaped by our thoughts; see through the lens of our thoughts and preconceptions Example: smattering of black and white dots; we can see a picture of a dog Example: dog house with big gaps in it but we see a whole Example: figure and ground in perception; depending on what you focus on, you can see an old lady or young lady but only one at a time: figure it what stands out, ground is what
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is behind that is not being perceived at the moment you are looking at it; exactly the same stimuli produces two radically diff perceptions Gestalt grouping principles o Proximity: three groups of two lines close to each other o Similarity: columns or rows of triangles and circles o Continuity: series of half circles or squiggly line with straight line through it o Connectedness: three dumbbell shapes, don’t see it as six circles with lines
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module 7 notes - Cognitive Psychology II Perception...

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