module 11 notes

module 11 notes - Module 11: Social Psychology II: The...

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Module 11: Social Psychology II: The Perceiver Shapes Reality and the Interaction of the Person and the Situation The Big Picture The perceiver shapes reality o Fundamental attribution error Attribution: why somebody else does what they do o Stereotyping: no agreed upon definition, most people want to include that it is a distortion of reality o Self-fulfilling prophecies: because you believe something is true, even if it is not initially true, it becomes true The interaction of the person and the situation o The Two Factor Theory of Emotion o Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Mesner) o Stereotype Threat- research of prof Fundamental Attribution Error Study of attribution came about by a group of psychologists, in particular Fritz Heider (Jew who fled Nazi Germany) Brought with them a strong Gestalt tradition: people shape the reality they are perceiving The whole is not equal to the sum of its part is most relevant when we come to understand what another person is like Person perception was a natural extension from the perception of objects When you perceive somebody, how do you decide what type of person they are? Central question What Heider focused on was the idea that when one sees a behaviour engaged in, the most natural question to ask is why did they do it? Dispositional attribution: attributing the behaviour to the person Situational attribution: the behaviour has been influenced by the situation
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What is the reason for the person’s behaviour? What do people do when they see someone engage in a particular behaviour? The Jones and Harris Essay Study 1967 o Had subjects read essays that were pro-Castro or anti-Castro o Situation: choose to write essay or given no choice for which side o Does their behaviour reflect their real attitudes, the type of person they are, or does it reflect the situation o When forced to write a particular side, outsiders still think they are more pro Castro if they write a pro Castro essay than if they write an anti Castro essay o This is fundamental attribution error: assume that the person is doing the behaviour because that is the type of person they are The Ross, Amabile and Steimetz Game Show Study 1977 o One person was the ‘game show host’ and the other was the contestant o Flip a coin to decide which role o The questioner got to pick any 10 things that they thought they knew and that somebody else was unlikely to know o Also had observers watching the ‘game show’ o Should be no inference as to anyone being smarter than another since the decision was made by chance, the coin flip o Graph of rating of general knowledge in %age, contestants and observers rate o Questioners perceived as knowledgeable according to both contestants and observers o Observer especially believes that questioner is very smart o People attributed it to the smartness of the questioner Heider- “The behaviour engulfs the field” o Believed that behaviour was like figure and ground
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This note was uploaded on 06/26/2011 for the course PYSCH 101 taught by Professor Online during the Spring '09 term at Waterloo.

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module 11 notes - Module 11: Social Psychology II: The...

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