Water and Major Minerals

Water and Major Minerals - Chapter 9: Water and the Major...

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Chapter 9: Water and the Major Minerals
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Water Comprise 50-70% of the body Muscle contains 73% water (fat contains ~20%) Intracellular fluid Fluid within the cell Extracellular fluid Outside the cells Important to keep fluid inside the cell inside the cell, and fluid outside the cell outside the cell
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Fluid Balance Water shifts freely in and out of the cells Controlled by the electrolyte concentration “Where electrolytes go, water is sure to follow” Intracellular water volume depends on intracellular potassium and phosphate concentrations Extracellular water volume depends on extracellular sodium and chloride concentrations Electrolytes dictate fluid balance
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cell Intracellular Intracellular Potassium (+) Phosphate (-) Sodium (+) Sodium (+) Chloride (-) Chloride (-) Extracellular Extracellular KNOW THESE which are extracellular and which are intercellular
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Functions of Water Body temperature regulation Water absorb any excess heat Body secretes fluid via perspiration Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates Removal of body waste Via urine Urea excretion Sodium excretion Avoid concentrated urine Amniotic fluid, joint lubricants, saliva, bile
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Are You Drinking Enough? Recommend 1ml per 1kcal
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The Thirst Mechanism Not reliable Concerns for infants, older adults, athletes Athletes need to monitor their fluid status Weigh themselves before and after training Goal is to consume 3 cups for every pound lost Illness (vomiting, diarrhea, fever)
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Ignoring Thirst Shortage of water in the body Increase fluid conservation Antidiuretic Antidiuretic hormone From the pituitary glad Forces the kidney to conserve water (reduce urine flow) Aldosterone Aldosterone Responds to the drop in blood pressure Signals the kidney to retain sodium (water) KNOW THESE 2 Hormones !!
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Thirst Signal is not triggered until person loses 1%-2% of body weight in fluid Lost of 4% causes muscle to lose significant strength and endurance Lost of 10%-12% causes heat intolerance Lost of 20% results in coma and death Don’t need to know these percentages
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Minerals Minerals Minerals are inorganic – no carbons! Minerals are inorganic – no carbons! -prot. carbs, fats and vitamins are organic -prot. carbs, fats and vitamins are organic Some minerals are essential for metabolic function Some minerals are essential for metabolic function May serve as May serve as COFACTORS COFACTORS or structural components or structural components of enzymes of enzymes Essential minerals are classified as MAJOR or TRACE Essential minerals are classified as MAJOR or TRACE
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Major Minerals Calcium ( Ca ) Potassium ( K ) Phosphorus ( P ) Chlorine (Cl) Magnesium (Mg) Sulfur (S) Sodium (Na)
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Trace Minerals Iron (Fe) Selenium (Se) Copper ( Cu) Fluorine (F) Iodine (I) Cadmium (Cd) Manganese (Mn) Vanadium (V) Cobalt (Co) Nickel (Ni) Zinc (Zn) Molybdenum (Mo) Chromium ( Cr) Silicon (Si)
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Water and Major Minerals - Chapter 9: Water and the Major...

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