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1B03 - Unit 3.1 - Unit 3.1 Cardiovascular System Pathology...

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Unit 3.1 Cardiovascular System Pathology Pg. 271-321 Pathologies Arteriosclerosis : (a general term for all types of arterial changes) degenerative changes in the small arteries and arterioles - common over age 50 & those with diabetes - elasticity lost - walls become thick and hard - lumen narrows, may become obstructed - leads to: - diffuse ischemia (a restriction in blood supply) - necrosis in various tissues (eg. kidneys, brain, heart) Atherosclerosis : differentiated by the presence of atheromas, plaques consisting of lipids, cells, fibrin, and cell debris, often with attached thrombi, formed inside the walls of large arteries. Etiology: - more common after age 40, particularly in men - women protected by higher HDL until after menopause (estrogen levels decrease) - genetics - diet + lifestyle (eg. smoking --> lowers HDL) FIG 18-13 - damages arterial wall - decrease elasticity - atheromas may calcify over time --> further rigidity of wall. leads to aneurysm FIG 18-12 - begins with endothelia injury in artery --> inflammation. elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) - smooth muscle cells proliferate/multiply --> plaque forms - platelets adhere to rough, damaged surface of arterial wall --> thrombosis/partial obstruction of artery - precipitating factor for myocardial infarction * atherosclorotic artery: - rough, elevated surface - loose pieces of plaque and thrombus - openings to branching arteries are blocked - atheromas form primarily in large arteries (eg. aorta and iliac arteries, coronary arteries, and carotid arteries) & at points of bifurcation (splitting of main body into two parts) , where turbulent blood flow encourages atheromas development FIG - 18.11 - Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): major contributing factor to atheromas. has high lipid content, transports cholesterol from liver to cells. Dangerous component of elevated serum levels of lipids and cholesterol.
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