Assignment #2 Distributed System - Layered a rchitecture...

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Layered architecture for grid computing system In Figure 2.1 , the bottom “Fabric” layer represents different distributed resources from different administrative domains, such as supercomputers or parallel computing clusters, storage systems, scientific instruments and data resources. Those resources are managed by domain-specific resource managers and users access them via the non-standard interfaces of the resource managers or directly via the Operating System API. On a computing resource, the local resource manager, known as the local scheduler or batch scheduler, is responsible for allocating computing elements to users’ jobs, launching them and monitoring their executions. Some well-known local schedulers include Sun Grid Engine (SGE) [ 22 ], Platform Load Sharing Facility (LSF) [ 23 ], Portable Batch System (PBS) [ 24 ] and IBM Load Leveler [ 45 ]. System administrators of these systems may also deploy a resource monitoring system, such as Ganglia [ 46 ], to report resource load/failure status.
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From bottom-up, the second layer, the “Connectivity” layer provides the core capabilities of the grid architecture for sharing individual resources, namely, the security infrastructure and the networking protocol. The security infrastructure is the middleware solutions to the grid security issues we mentioned before, and it is the core of the grid architecture. Currently, the standard solution is the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) [ 38 ], which uses public key cryptography as the basis for its functionality. The networking capabilities make use of the widely deployed standard protocols, such as HTTP, TCP/IP, etc., and recently, web service communication protocols, such as SOAP [ 47 ], also become part of this layer as the grid architecture moves to service oriented architectures [ 48 ]. The third layer, the “Resource” layer, provides interfaces for single resource sharing, which include remote computational resource access, data sharing and replication and resource monitoring and auditing. From this layer, users are able to access individual resources using standard grid interfaces. Middleware solutions in the “Resource” layer and the “Connectivity” layer address those grid issues we mentioned in the last section and provide a standard and uniform interface to build higher level services to access multiple resources collaboratively. The middlewares in these two layers serve as the software glue between the grid resources and the applications. The open source Globus Toolkit [ 49 ] is the de facto standard for providing these middlewares. We have a dedicated section next to introduce it. While the “Resource” layer is focused on interactions with a single resource, the next
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Assignment #2 Distributed System - Layered a rchitecture...

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