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Unformatted text preview: 8 protons 8 neutrons carbon! F- , Cl- , I- , and Br- also form ionic bonds. ds. If you see any of these, the molecule will at least be a polar molecule or group. Some groups (NO 3- , SO 4 = , or P of only C and H atoms, it will be a non-polar molecule! should also be able to explain your answer if appropriate. Absolutely essential is your mastery of the vocabulary intr Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life OVERVIEW This chapter introduces some basic concepts of chemistry, a science that studies the composition of substances and the changes that occur as basic elements combine. It explains how substances combine to make up matter (objectives 1~5), how substances are classified as acid or base (objective 6), and the organic and inorganic substances that make up the living cell (objectives 7 and 8). Knowledge of basic chemical concepts enhances understanding of the functions of cells and of the human body. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain how the study of living material is dependent on the study of chemistry. 2. Describe the relationships among matter, atoms, and molecules. 3. Discuss how atomic structure is related to the ways in which atoms interact. 4. Explain how molecular and structural formulas are used to symbolize the composition of compounds. 5. Describe three types of chemical reactions, and be able to describe the different types of chemical bonds which join atoms and groups of atoms together. . 6. Discuss the concept of pH. 7. List the major groups of inorganic substances that are common in cells. 8. Be able to identify the basic types of biomolecules found within the cell .bio- (life ) di- (two ) glyc- (sweet ) iso- ( equal) lip- ( fat)-lyt (dissolvable ) mono- ( one) nucle- ( kernel) poly- (many ) sacchar- ( sugar) syn- (together )-valent (having power ) II. Structure of Matter A. Elements and atoms. 1. If you recall from your prior courses about the sciences, is anything that has mass and occupies space. Do you remember the discussions of the different phases of matter? What are they? (solids, liquids, gases ) 3. We have many different types of substances which make up our bodies. About 95% of our total body mass is made of just four types of matter. These four elements are (carbon) , (hydrogen) , (oxygen) ,and (nitrogen) . Two more elements, (calcium) and (phosphorus) , make up an additional 2.5% of our bodies. These six substances are referred to as the (bulk elements) . Five additional elements, (sulfur) , ( potassium) , (chlorine) , (sodium) ,and (magnesium) make up a little more than 1% of body mass. The elements cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, and zinc are essential (trace elements ) which are necessary for the proper function of the enzymes and other biomolecules. What is an ultra-trace element? Give an example. (An ultra-trace element is a chemical element that is less than 1mg of an organism....
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- Summer '11
- Atom, atoms, Molecule, atoms share electrons