Nutrition and Metabolism
This chapter presents some basic concepts of nutrition. It defines nutrition, and primary and secondary
malnutrition (objectives 1 and 17). It describes the utilization, function, and sources of proteins, carbohydrates,
lipids, vitamins, anal minerals (objectives 2-5, and 11-15). It explains nitrogen balance, energy, energy value of
foods, basal metabolic rate, adequate diet, and desirable weight (objectives 6-10, 16, and 17).
Knowledge of what foods to select and in what quantities provides a firm foundation for the study of nutrition.
After you have studied this chapter you should be able to:
1. Define nutrition, nutrients, and essential nutrients.
2. List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
3. Describe how carbohydrates are utilized by cell.
4. Describe how lipids are utilized by cells.
5. Describe how amino acids are utilized by cells.
6. Define nitrogen balance.
7. Explain how the energy values of food are determined
S. Explain how various factors affect an individual energy needs
9. Define energy balance.
10. Explain what is meant by desirable weights.
11. List the fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins.
12. Describe the general functions of each vitamin
13. Distinguish between a vitamin and a mineral.
14. List the major minerals and trace elements.
15. Describe the general functions of each mineral and trace element.
16. Describe an adequate diet.
I. Aids to Understanding Words (Please refer to Appendix D and the inside front and
Define the following word parts.
( measure )
( bad, abnormal
We require chemicals called
( fuel )
We obtain them from the (environment).
Those required in
bulk are macronutrients, including
( carbohydrates ), (proteins
) and ( fats )
Those required in small daily
doses are micronutrients, including
) and ( minerals ).
The body also requires
( water ).
A person can get adequate nutrition by eating a variety of foods and limiting fats where there are adequate
A person who does not eat meat needs to pay more attention to which foods are eaten, but can
get good nutrition by eating foods which will provide the nutrients found in meat Among these are
foods, leafy greens, whole grain )