Study Guide 18

Study Guide 18 - Nutrition and Metabolism Chapter 18 Your...

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Nutrition and Metabolism Chapter 18 Your name This chapter presents some basic concepts of nutrition. It defines nutrition, and primary and secondary malnutrition (objectives 1 and 17). It describes the utilization, function, and sources of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, anal minerals (objectives 2-5, and 11-15). It explains nitrogen balance, energy, energy value of foods, basal metabolic rate, adequate diet, and desirable weight (objectives 6-10, 16, and 17). Knowledge of what foods to select and in what quantities provides a firm foundation for the study of nutrition. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After you have studied this chapter you should be able to: 1. Define nutrition, nutrients, and essential nutrients. 2. List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins 3. Describe how carbohydrates are utilized by cell. 4. Describe how lipids are utilized by cells. 5. Describe how amino acids are utilized by cells. 6. Define nitrogen balance. 7. Explain how the energy values of food are determined S. Explain how various factors affect an individual energy needs 9. Define energy balance. 10. Explain what is meant by desirable weights. 11. List the fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. 12. Describe the general functions of each vitamin 13. Distinguish between a vitamin and a mineral. 14. List the major minerals and trace elements. 15. Describe the general functions of each mineral and trace element. 16. Describe an adequate diet. STUDY ACTIVITIES I. Aids to Understanding Words (Please refer to Appendix D and the inside front and back covers.) Define the following word parts. bas- ( base ) meter- ( measure ) calor- ( heat ) nutri- ( nourish ) carot- ( carrot ) obes- (fat ) lip- (fat ) pell- ( skin ) mal- ( bad, abnormal ) Nutrients We require chemicals called ( fuel ) for survival. We obtain them from the (environment). Those required in bulk are macronutrients, including ( carbohydrates ), (proteins ) and ( fats ) . Those required in small daily doses are micronutrients, including (vitamins ) and ( minerals ). The body also requires ( water ). A person can get adequate nutrition by eating a variety of foods and limiting fats where there are adequate food supplies. A person who does not eat meat needs to pay more attention to which foods are eaten, but can get good nutrition by eating foods which will provide the nutrients found in meat Among these are ( fortified foods, leafy greens, whole grain ) 18-1
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In digestion nutrients need to be broken down to a size that can be absorbed and transported. Nutrients are ( chemicals supplied from environment that an organism requires for survival ) in metabolism and used to build up (anabolism) or to break down (catabolism ) chemical compounds to support life. Some nutrients that we need, like certain amino acids, we cannot synthesize. These are called ( essential nurtrients ) Complete the Graph below about the hormones which interact to affect appetite by affecting the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
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Study Guide 18 - Nutrition and Metabolism Chapter 18 Your...

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