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Study Guide 17

Study Guide 17 - Digestive System Study Guide Name OVERVIEW...

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Digestive System Study Guide Name OVERVIEW This chapter is about the digestive system, which processes food so that nutrients can be absorbed and utilized by the cells. It names the organs of the digestive system and describes their locations and functions (objectives 1 and 2). The structure, movement, and digestive mechanisms of the alimentary canal are explained (objectives 3, 4, 7, and 8). The function and regulation of the secretions of the digestive organs are introduced (objectives 5 and 6). This chapter also tells how nutrients are absorbed from the alimentary canal (objective 9). Study of the digestive system helps in understanding how fuel is made available for metabolism. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Name and describe the location of the organs of the digestive system and their major parts. 2. Describe the general functions of each digestive organ. 3. Describe the structure of the wall of the alimentary canal. 4. Explain how the contents of the alimentary canal are mixed and moved. 5. List the enzymes secreted by the various digestive organs and glands and describe the function of each. 6. Describe how digestive secretions are regulated. 7. Explain how digestive reflexes control movement of material through the alimentary canal. 8. Describe the mechanisms of swallowing, vomiting, and defecating. 9. Explain how the products of digestion are absorbed. STUDY ACTIVITIES I. Aids to Understanding Words Define the following word parts. aliment- (food ) cari- ( decay ) cec- ( blindness ) chym- ( juice ) decidu- ( falling off ) frenul- ( bridel ) What is Digestion? Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods. Mechanical digestion breaks large pieces into smaller particles. Chemical digestion breaks food into simpler chemicals using the catabolic reaction of hydrolysis (p.116). There are many processes which occur within the digestive system. These processes include (ingestion) , ( propulsion ) , ( absorption ) , and ( defecation ) . The Alimentary Canal Quicklink: Digestive System Overview The digestive system has two groups of organs, the alimentary canal and the (accessory organs ) . Organs that make up the alimentary canal include the (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anal canal) . Accessory organs include the (salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas) .
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The wall of the alimentary canal consists of four layers. The four layers are the innermost mucous membrane or (mucosa ) , the ( submucosa ) , the (muscular layer ) , and the (serosa ) . The inner ( lumen) is lined with stratified squamous epithelium or simple columnar epithelium (pp146-148). Small projections of epithelium may extend into the lumen of the tube. The second layer, the ( submucosa ), consists of ( loose connective tissue) with (glands, blood vessels, lymphatic system, and nerves ) . The (muscular) layer consists of ( two coats of smooth muscle tissue ) arranged with layers of
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Study Guide 17 - Digestive System Study Guide Name OVERVIEW...

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