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Unformatted text preview: 25/05/2011 22:03:00 Endocrine System Chapter 13 Study Guide Revision 2 OVERVIEW The endocrine system, like the nervous system, controls body activities to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. The methods used by these two systems are different. This chapter describes the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands, the location of the endocrine glands, and the hormones they secrete (objectives 1 and 6). It explains the nature of hormones, the substances that function as hormones, how hormones affect target tissues, how the secretion of hormones is controlled by a negative feedback system and the nervous system, the general function of each hormone, and the result of too little or too much of each hormone (objectives 2-5, 7, and 8). In addition, the text distinguishes between physical and psychological stress, and describes how the endocrine system mediates the stress response (objectives 9 and 10). A knowledge of the function of the endocrine system is basic to the understanding of how metabolic processes are regulated to meet the changing needs of the body. I. Aids to Understanding Words Define the following word parts. -crin ( to secrete ) diuret- (to pass urine ) endo- ( inside ) exo- ( outside ) hyper- ( above ) hypo- ( below ) lact- ( milk ) para- ( beside ) toc- (birth ) -tropic ( influencing ) vas- ( vessel ) II. General Characteristics of the Endocrine System A. The endocrine glands secrete ( hormones ) B. Hormones diffuse from ( interstitial fluid ) into (the bloodstream ) and eventually act on ( target cells ) C. Paracrine secretions are ( enter the interstitial fluid but affect only neighboring cells ) D. Autocrine secretions are ( affecting only the secreting cells ) E. Exocrine glands secrete substances into ( tubes or ducts that lead to body surfaces ) F. Endocrine glands and their hormones control ( internal environment ) G. Endocrine hormones also play vital roles in (regulating metabolic processes ) H. The larger endocrine glands are ( hypothalamus, pituitary gland, parathyroid gland, kidney, testis, ovary, pancreases, adrenal gland, thymus, thyroid gland, pineal gland ) III. Hormone Action A. Introduction 1. Hormones only affect their (target cells ) 2. Target cells have ( hormone receptors ) for ( responding to hormone ) B. Control Sources 1. The hypothalamus controls ( anterior pituritary ) glands release of tropic hormones. 2. Tropic hormones are those that stimulate ( other endocrine gland to release hormones ) . 3. An example of an endocrine organ directly stimulated by the nervous system is the ( adrenal medulla ) ....
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This note was uploaded on 06/26/2011 for the course A & P 221 taught by Professor Lankow during the Spring '11 term at Mayville.
- Spring '11