Exam 1 study guide - Exam 1 Study Guide"Graying of America...

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Exam 1 Study Guide “Graying of America” = trend of greater numbers and proportions of older adults in the US. 1900: 3 million, 4% 1990: 32 million, 13% 2030: 65 million, 22% Ageism = belief that age is a main determinant of behavior and that personality, social traits, and abilities are determined by chronological age. Can lead to discrimination/prejudice. It is widespread because of the “Detroit Syndrome” = older people’s access to opportunities declines because they don’t use technology, youth-oriented society, lack of contact between generations, media, and lack of knowledge. Age-stereotyping = over-generalizing characteristics to all older adults Serock studied children’s’ stereotypes of older adults. Harris asked adults to rate the level of difficulty a certain task was. Younger people were unnecessarily more pessimistic. Implicit stereotyping = automatically activated negative stereotypes about again guide behavior beyond our awarenesses Stereotype threat = evoked fear of being judged in accordance with a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong Aging is easier for women because of a continuity of domestic roles and social support networks Aging is easier for men because of greater financial security, lower incidence of chronic/disabling conditions, more lenient standards for physical attractiveness (gray hair) “Double jeopardy” = problems associated with aging and racism are additive putting ethnic minority elders at greatest risk. For income and health, Africans/Latinos are at the greatest risk for decline in income/health.
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“Age as a leveler” = problems associated with aging are so severe they wipe out effects of racism “Ethnicity as a Resource” = ethnic identity provides a buffer against effects of aging and ageism. For quality of social interaction and family, older Latinos are more satisfied with their families than African/Euro Americans Modernization theory = industrialization has resulted in more negative attitudes toward and more negative treatment of the aged In non-industrialized cultures: aging is easier for the Chukchee Indians where the younger sacrifice for the elderly. They live in harsh conditions but have very high status and treatment of the aged. Aging is harder for Yakuts where there is a low status for the aged. 71 tribal societies found neglect, abandonment, and killing in 28 groups. Factors that determine the status of the aged: economics, roles of memory and oral history, control of key family and community resources, behavior of current older population, warmth of child-rearing practices, and societal expectation that extended family provides support Development: age-related change in body or behavior; can occur any time in the lifespan and can involve improved functioning, deterioration, or simply a difference Goals of developmental psychology: describe, explain, understand individual differences, and optimize Primary aging = normal aging which is inevitable and universal, individual differences are only magnitude and timing
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