Ch 4 Lecture - The Beginnings of Modern Science &...

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The Beginnings of Modern Science & Philosophy (Chapter 4)
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2 Greek Philosophy Hypothesized about the most significant problems in psychology: Is “mind” different from “matter” Is human nature inborn or from experience? How do we perceive? Learn? Does the mind rule our emotions, or vice versa? How do we know what we know? (Epistemology)
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3 Greek Philosophy Greatest single contribution: Recognition that humans can examine, comprehend, and control their own thought, behavior and emotions.
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4 Roman Empire Builders and warriors; conquered most of the known world Produced no great thinkers/philosophers An oppressive regime in conquered lands Exported Greek philosophy to most of world
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Roman Empire 4 th century: Constantine converted to Christianity Declared religious freedom 4 th century: Roman empire was dying Authority shifted from state to church Church evolved to set the boundaries of legitimate intellectual inquiry 5
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6 Roman Empire As Rome disintegrated, the Church condemned everything “scientific” which conflicted with Doctrine of God’s direct intervention in lives of individuals Centrality of earth in the universe (man is the highest creation and we/our home is central to everything) Reality of miracles (supernatural explanations for inexplicable phenomena)
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7 The Dark Ages
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Medieval Period Medieval means “middle ages” in Latin Middle Ages is the period between fall of Rome and the Renaissance Middle Ages also known as the Dark Ages Approximately 300 to 1300 CE 8
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9 The Dark Ages Dogma of the Church dominated all thought & behavior Much scientific knowledge lost during this era, and there was little scientific advancement Philosophy and science were diminished to what was acceptable to orthodox Church dogma Previous scientific knowledge, such as medicine, replaced with superstition & magical thinking
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The Dark Ages: An Example Because the Pope has decreed, you believe: Earth is the center of the universe Earth is immovable Evening sun is red because it reflects the fires of hell To discern the truth, burn an individual. If there is no sign after 3 days, God has intervened & the person is innocent (trial by ordeal) 10
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11 The Dark Ages The Dark Ages were only “dark” in the west, which was under the control of the Church & its dogma Muslims and Jews were very advanced scientifically, and profited from the work of people like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Example: mathematics
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12 Arab World During the Dark Ages Islamic leaders emphasized compassion, social justice, & fair wealth distribution; discouraged theological speculation Arabic scholars were free to study and discover without fear of religious censorship
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13 The Dark Ages By contrast, Christian scholars evaluated new and ancient knowledge from the perspective of their theology, and discarded/ suppressed anything which contradicted their metaphysical beliefs.
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This note was uploaded on 06/26/2011 for the course PSYC 4355 taught by Professor Gill during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas-Tyler.

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Ch 4 Lecture - The Beginnings of Modern Science &...

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