Chem 3AL - Lab Report #1 - Kylie 30 June 2010 Chem3A Lab...

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Kylie 30 June 2010 Chem3A Lab Experiment #2 Discussion: * In order for two substances to be soluble, the solute and solvent must form sufficient intermolecular bonds that overcome the bonds within the individual substances. Section 1. When 1mL of hexane is mixed with 5 drops each of diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and dichloromethane, each combination results in a clear, homogenous solution. When hexane is mixed with water, however, the resulting solution is split into two layers (with hexane on top), showing that these two are immiscible in the given proportion. The first 5 solvents' solubility in the hexane solute are explained by the intermolecular forces involved: all of these molecular compounds have nonpolar characteristics and attract one another through London dispersion forces. Since the water molecules are polar and are driven by strong intermolecular forces – hydrogen bonding allowed by the O-H bonds – hexane's weak dispersion forces can't break those bonds to form new ones. As a result, these “unlike” substances do not mix and instead remain separated in the solution. Section 2. The combinations of water with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and toluene all result in immiscible solutions (with the solutes floating on top of the water). Like hexane, these solutes have nonpolar characteristics and do not attract any bonds with the strongly hydrogen- bonded water molecules. Acetone and ethanol, on the other hand, readily mix with water and form clear solutions. They'd be expected not to since they're miscible with hexane, but their structures show that they hold polar characteristics as well. The carbonyl group (with a d- charge on the O and a d+ charge on the C) in acetone and the O-H bond in ethanol both allow hydrogen bonding with the water molecules; the polar substances are able to attract each other through similar intermolecular forces.
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Section 3. After adding 25 drops each of ethanol and 1-propanol into water, the resulting
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Chem 3AL - Lab Report #1 - Kylie 30 June 2010 Chem3A Lab...

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