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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 131 – Developmental Psychopathology Midterm 2 – Lecture Notes Lecture 1 ADHD: – 6-8% prevalence in the U.S. – Prevalence studies: cross-studies, multiple sources required. – In other parts of the world: over 100 studies looked at through literature search, conducted throughout the world. Prevalence of ADHD in 18+ individuals, rate: around 5-5.6% – Very large variety in rates, even within the same country. They vary due to the different research methods (self-reports, detailed clinical interviews, different sources/teachers/parents interviewed, etc.) - adjusted to take these different methods into account. – Overall, geographic differences aren't that great (after method differences taken into account). Significant differences: between North American and African American studies, North Amerian and Middle Eastern studies. No big differences between North American, European, and Asian countries. – A lot of studies done in N. American and Europe. Only 15 studies done in Asia, very few in Africa and others. Therefore prevalence rates cannot be → accurate due to differences in #studies, not enough done in other countries. – Rates in females across studies/regions = higher than in males. Higher in children than in adults. – Africa and S. America: higher prevalence rates than in N. America. But after method differences taken into account, biggest difference between N. America and Africa. Only a few studies, however. – ADHD isn't a cultural symptom; it occurs everywhere. It doesn't vary substancially across different regions. However, we need to have more studies done in other non-US countries. Comorbidities – ADHD and internal disorders – ADHD and external disorders – ADHD very likely to have other diagnoses. → – A study: only included children w/ ADHD combined subtype. Results: only 31% of those children had ADHD alone (may have had conduct problems, but didn't meet the reqs of conduct disorders). 21% of the children had ADHD and ODD, and 10% had ADHD and anxiety disorder. A sizeable # had 2 disorders. – ADHD can co-occur with other DSM disorders at high rates. Etiology of ADHD: – Not everything is understood – Two primary dimensions: inattention and hyperactivity symptoms – Genetic risks researched, as well as environmental risk factors – Gene x environment reactions can happen – Important mechanisms: abnormalities in development – Neuroimaging technologies to look at brains, ADHD vs. normal ones. Structural/Functional differences....
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This note was uploaded on 06/27/2011 for the course PSYCH 131 taught by Professor Hinshaw during the Fall '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Fall '08