23_Euk_Transcription_I

23_Euk_Transcription_I - Common Ancestor The Tree of Life:...

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Common Ancestor The Tree of Life: The lengths of the branches on the tree reflect how much  the DNA of each lineage has diverged from its common ancestor. The  branches demonstrate that most of life's genetic diversity turns out to be  microbial. Thermococcus
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Regulation of  Eukaryotic  Transcription I A GFP reporter in a Mouse  Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II poised  for initiation READING: 8: 305-8, 11: 385-94, 12:  415-436  
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There are major differences between prokaryotic and  eukaryotic transcriptional regulation 1 polymerase 4 Mb genome, >50% coding ~4000 genes 3 polymerases; chromatin 3000 Mb genome, 1.5% coding ~20,000 Genes, 3 m per cell;  300Bkm Note: “Minimal” genome: 387 protein-encoding genes and 43 RNA-encoding genes ( Mycoplasma genitalium)   
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Eukaryotic Regulatory  Elements and   Transcription Factors
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This is where the action is! Most sequence-specific  transcription factors work by  facilitating the formation of the  pre-initiation complex How do TFs do it? Six multi-subunit GTFs must be assembled for initiation to occur Fig. 8-12 pg. 307
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Transcription Factors are Bipartite, Modular Proteins:   They contain a DNA-binding domain and an “Activation Domain” that  interacts with components of the PIC How do we know  that? Experiments!
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Some TFs act specifically to bend DNA  to facilitate interactions The term “Transcription Factor” is functionally defined as a protein that facilitates transcription.  Therefore, they can have a number of different molecular functions (cooperative factor, histone  modifications, etc). 
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core promoter promoter-proximal elements transcript scale is in kb (kilobases) enhancers +1 Eukaryotic Regulatory Elements can  Be Very Complex
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23_Euk_Transcription_I - Common Ancestor The Tree of Life:...

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