29_DNA_Damage

29_DNA_Damage - Mutations J.D Watson in"The Double Helix In...

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Mutations J.D. Watson in “The Double Helix”
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Heritable phenotypes Phenotypic variation in the population Phenotypic variation affects production of offspring In any system with the following properties: Natural selection will occur How does variation arise? If there is a means to introduce new  variation Evolution will occur
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How does genetic diversity arise? Mutations   Spontaneous   “naturally” (spontaneous, background rate)       mistakes in DNA replication, etc   Mutagens   Alter a base (alkylation)  Replace a base (base analogs, intercalators)  Damage a base (Oxidation, UV crosslinking) Repair  Direct repair  Base Excision Repair  Nucleotide Excision Repair  Homologous Recombination  Non-homologous End Joining
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Luria and Delbruck experiments Lederberg experiments p. 518-519 Concept:  Mutations can occur spontaneously Mutations occur before  a selection event, not in  response to it.
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ATGCCCGAAGTG TACGGGCTTCAC Point Mutations (Base Substitutions) ATGCCC A AAGTG TACGGG T TTCAC ATGCCC T AAGTG TACGGG A TTCAC transition purine purine pyrimidine pyrimidine transversion purine pyrimidine pyrimidine purine Purines: A and G (two-ring bases) Pyrimidines: C and T (single-ring bases)
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Mutations that affect coding sequences  AUG CCU CAA UUG UAG met pro gln leu stop AUG C A U CAA UUG UAG met his gln leu stop
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29_DNA_Damage - Mutations J.D Watson in"The Double Helix In...

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