ALL CHAPTER NOTES for Psychology AP - Psychology AP Notes...

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Psychology AP Notes Chapter 1: What is Psychology? Section 1: Why Study Psychology? Behavior and Mental Processes - psychology : scientific study of behavior and mental processes - behavior : any action that other people can observe or measure - cognitive activities : mental processes - psychological constructs : talking about something we cannot see, touch, or measure The Goals of Psychology - observe, describe, explain, predict, control - see relationship between anxiety and performance Psychology as a Science - foundations in the natural scientists - psychology studies the brain - Research o surveys o experimentation - Theories o theory : statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do o principle : rule or law Section 2: What Psychologists Do Clinical Psychologists (47.4%) - therapists - evaluate psychological problems through the use of interviews and psychological tests - help clients understand and resolve their problems by changing ineffective or harmful behavior - work in hospitals, prisons, college clinics, and in private practices - psychiatrist : medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medication Counseling Psychologists (8.5%) - treat people who have adjustment problems (finding careers or making friends) - employed in businesses and college counseling and testing centers School Psychologists (7.5% w/ Educational) - help students with problems that interfere with learning - talk with teachers, parents, and students - school counselors - student placement (special classes and programs) Educational Psychologists (7.5% w/ School) - focus on course planning and instructional methods for an entire school system - concerned with measurement of abilities, learning, and development - affected by: o psychological factors (motivation, emotions, creativity, intelligence) o cultural factors (beliefs) o economic factors (level of income earned by a person’s family) o instructional methods used in the classroom - help prepare standardized tests Developmental Psychologists (5.7%) - study changes throughout a person’s life span like: o physical (height and weight, adolescent growth, sexual maturity, physical aspects of aging) o emotional (development of self-concept and self-esteem) o cognitive (mental images of the world outside, learning right from wrong) o social (formation of bonds between parents and children, relationships with peers, intimate relationships between adults) - attempt to sort out relative influences of heredity and the environment on development - especially interested in the challenges of adolescence Personality Psychologists (5.3% w/ Social) - identify characteristics - study development of traits Social Psychologists (5.3% w/ Personality) - concerned with peoples’ behavior in social situations - focus on external influences o behaviors of women and men o physical and psychological factors that attract people to one another o reasons for conformity
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o behavior changes when subject to a group
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ALL CHAPTER NOTES for Psychology AP - Psychology AP Notes...

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