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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Biological Aspects of Psychology Biological Psychology-is the study of the cells and organs of the body and the physical and chemical changes involved in the behavior and mental processes. The Neuron: o Dendrites- take in or receive signals from the axons of the other neurons and carry those signals to the cell body o Soma- the cell body o Axon- fibers that carry signals away from the body of a neuron out to where communication occurs with the other neurons o Synapse- the tiny gap between neurons across which they communicate o Polarized- more negative than positive molecules on the inside of cell o Depolarization- channels of cell membrane open, letting in the positively charged molecules o Action Potential- an abrupt wave of electrochemical changes traveling down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized o Once the action potential travels to the end of the axon, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse . o Neurotransmitter- chemicals that assist in the transfer of signals from one neuron to another. They open channels o Receptors- sites on the surface of cells that allow only on type of neurotransmitter to fit into them, triggering a chemical response that may lead to an action potential. o Postsynaptic Potential : Excitatory- positive molecules enter, depolarized, FIRE! Inhibitory- negative molecules enter, hyperpolarized, no fire The Nervous System o Organization of the nervous system The nervous system is a complex combination of cells whose primary function is to allow the organism to gain information about what is going on inside and outside the body and to respond appropriately. o Central Nervous System- the parts of the nervous system housed in bone (aka skull and spine) Spinal cord in charge of reflexes Brain-way more complicated Lobes of the Brain (are separated by fissures) o Frontal o Temporal o Occipital o Parietal Left and right hemispheres are connected by a bundle of neurons called the Corpus Collosum o Left-language, logic, math o Right- recognition, visual, emotional o Lateralized- refers to the tendency for one cerebral hemisphere to excel at a particular function or skill compared to the other. Cortex- functional area of the brain Areas of language cortex o Wernickes Area- language, seems to be in charge of semantics (meaning of words) o Brocas Area- stuttering, broken speech, in charge of syntax (order of words) o Peripheral Nervous System- the parts not housed in bone Somatic- transmits information from the senses to the CNS and carries signals from the CNS to muscles Autonomic- carries messages between the CNS and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands. Cant control....
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- Spring '09