PsychFinally - Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology What is...

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology What is psychology? -the scientific study of behaviors and mental processes—broad -both observable and non-observable; involved animals and humans Four goals of psychology: 1. Description: describe the behavior or mental process 2. Explanation: explain the causes of behavior, where does it come from and why 3. Prediction: predict how people and animals will react in certain situations 4. Control: control the behavior Ethical problems: many people are scared psychologists will get too much control over human/animal behavior and use it negatively Positive aspects: makes people have healthier, more satisfying lives -if can control and therefore prevent illnesses like autism, etc. Psychological Perspectives 1. Psychoanalytic approach -unconscious motives and experiences in early childhood govern personality and mental disorders -Freud; early 1900s; popular during the 1930s and 1940s 2. Behavioral approach -only observable events can be studied scientifically -Watson; 1913 -believed that the study of consciousness, thoughts, feelings, etc. should be abandoned; Watson was a follower of Freud -Skinner continued this school of thought in the 1930s and 1940s -main area of study: how organisms learn new behaviors or change existing ones in terms of whether or not these behaviors are rewarded or punished -often used animals in research (pigeons, rats, other primates) 3. Humanist approach -humans are free, rational beings with the potential for positive growth and are fundamentally different from other animals -Rogers, Mastow; 1950s -believed people can have control over their biology and environment -believed people have a sense of self, while animals do not -believed all people have a fundamental desire to reach their full potential *reaction persepective that criticizes the psychoanalytic/behavioral approaches as being dehumanizing 4. Biological approach -an organisms functioning can be explained in terms of bodily structures and biochemical processes that underlie behavior -focuses of how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with the environment and on how this influences learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and so on -this approach would suggest medication 5. Cognitive approach -human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store, and process information 1
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-backlash at the behavioral approach: claims that perception, thinking, and the unconscious DO need to be studied 6. Cross cultural approach -to truly understand human behavior we have to examine the influences of culture -main focus is examining the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences of psychological and social functioning Main areas of research -Physiological psychology -looks for links between the body and the brain and how that affects our behaviors and thoughts -would use the biological approach -Developmental psychology -development of people and animals from conception to death -Cognitive psychology
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PsychFinally - Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology What is...

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