Reasoning and Intelligence- Chapter 10

Reasoning and Intelligence- Chapter 10 - Sarah Benjamin...

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Sarah Benjamin 10/6/08 Psych 11- Notes Chapter 10- Reasoning and Intelligence Why Reasoning is Essential in Our Lives Understand present situations Recognize and solve problems Anticipate the future Plan for the future Analogies: Foundations for Reasoning An analogy is a relationship between two things which may be unlike in some  respects but similar in at least in one way (e.g. solar system/atom analogy) Behavior o Mind as a computer Function o Street light is like a star Relationship o Marriage between humans versus pair-bonding between geese Purple finches vs. house finches? o Not an analogy because based on identity or superficial appearance William James: “Science is nothing but the finding of an analogy o Categorization of previously unknown examples o Flexible application of prior knowledge to new problems o Cross-domain transfer of ideas and understanding
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Inductive Reasoning From the specific to general Making observations and building generalizations on the basis of observations Biases o Availability Biases Judgments based on how easily instances of a category come to mind More effort leads to judging an event as rare We take “availability in memory” to equal “frequency in the world” Availability What we notice- leads to better memory Famous/familiar names capture attention Recency of events Media coverage o Confirmation Bias (selective thinking) Search for or interpret information which confirms one’s preconceptions  and avoid information which contradict prior beliefs o Predictable-World bias People want to believe they live in a  predictable world  over which they  have some control Arrive at predictions through induction even when events are  random  (game of pure chance) Deductive Reasoning o From the general to the specific o Series problems Review series of statements
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Arrive at a conclusion not contained in any single statement For example: Gary is taller than Henry. Gary is shorter than Steve. Steve is shorter  than Mark. Is mark shorter than Henry? o Syllogism Present two general premises that must be combined to see if a particular  conclusion is true For example: All Dukies like watching basketball (major premise). You are all  Dukies (minor premise). Must you like watching basketball  (conclusion)? Argument Are both of the premises true on their own? Is the conclusion reasonable?
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Reasoning and Intelligence- Chapter 10 - Sarah Benjamin...

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