Psyc, Learning

Psyc, Learning - PSYC 001 Chapter 6: Learning I.) The...

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PSYC 001 Chapter 6: Learning I.) The Perspective of Learning Theory *Simple Learning: involves the creation of associations, and the associations, in turn, were the direct result of one’s experiences *Complex Learning: involves more associations, built layer upon layer so that complicated notions—and whole belief systems—are jus the result of creating more and more links among individual ideas *Learning Theorists : a group of theorists who argued that most learning can be understood in terms of a small number of principles that apply to all organisms and all situations *All animal species share a need for learning II.) Habituation: the decline in an organism’s response to a stimulus once the stimulus has become familiar *Example: a sudden noise usually startles us; the second time the noise is heard our startle is diminished, and the third time it will hardly be evoked at all and then the noise will be ignored altogether…at this point, one has become fully habituated *Benefit : narrows the range of stimuli that elicit alarm--- we will attend to novel inputs but ignore familiar ones *Dishabituation : an increase in responsiveness caused by the presentation of something novel *Example : if an animal hears a loud noise over and over and over, the animal will habituate to the noise and cease responding to it. But, if the noise is suddenly a bit louder or changes its position in space, the animal will dishabituate: detect the change and once again pay full attention to the noise *The Survival Value : a change in stimulation often brings that organism important news about its world…thus dishabituation serves the important function of calling attention to newly arriving information, just as habituation serves the function of helping you ignore old news III.) Classical Conditioning *Much learning can be understood as the formation (or strengthening) of associations *Pavlov and the Conditioned Response *Ivon Petrovich Pavlov *Salivation is typically triggered by food---the salivary reflex could be set off by a range of other stimuli as well, including stimuli that were at first totally neutral *Created simple patterns for the animal to detect: sound bell=food *Unconditioned Response (UR) : a product of the organism’s biology and was triggered by a certain stimulus (example- dog salvation) *Unconditioned Stimulus (US): independent of any learning elicits the UR (example- food) *Conditioned Stimulus (CS): in classical conditioning, the stimulus which comes to elicit a new response by virtue of pairings w/ the unconditioned stimulus; the product of learning and is initially a neutral stimulus, does not elicit the CR (CS, example- the bell) *The CS only come to elicit the CR only after some presentations of the 1
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CS only after some presentations of the CS followed by the US *Conditioned Response (CR): a response elicited by some initially neutral stimulus, the conditioned (CS), as a result of pairings between hat CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US). This CR is typically not identical with the
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Psyc, Learning - PSYC 001 Chapter 6: Learning I.) The...

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