Psych1BookNotes - Chapter 1-For any mental achievement many...

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Chapter 1 --For any mental achievement, many brain regions are involved, working together as a closely integrated team. --Memory can be manipulated using leading questions. --Humans have more complicated social interaction --Animals usually eat just about the right amount (by number of calories) to satisfy their needs. --Glucose levels and glycogen levels are used by the body to determine this. --Hypothalamus serves as one of the brain areas responsible for the initiation of feeding. If the region is damaged, animals starve. --Damage in the ventromedial region (which tells animals when to stop eating) causes an animal to overate and become obese. --Animals are more likely to eat if animals around them are also eating. --Anorexia Nervosa --Relentless pursuit of thinness through self-starvation, even unto death. --Affects up to 1% of the youth population. --Symptoms include hyperactivity, sleep disorder, and avoidance of sex. --Caused by psychological obsessions with thinness, fear of sexuality, defiance of one's parents, and a fierce desire to assert some degree of personal control --Memory is tied to hunger --If one remembers eating, one will not be hungry --If one does not remember eating, one will not be hungry The Scientific Method --Testable Hypothesis --Hypothesis that allow us to make specific predictions about what we will find, given a particular set of circumstances. --If facts are not consistent with the prediction, then the hypothesis is disconfirmed. --If the results are consistent with the prediction, then the hypothesis is confirmed. --Avoid open-ended hypotheses --Studies must be replicated --Run the same procedure with a new group of participants. --Anecdotal evidence --Informally collected and reported
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--Report Bias --A tendency for some observations to be reported, while others are not --Example: Success stories of quitting cigarette smoking is more reported than failures --File Drawer Problem --Studies with encouraging results are often reported --Studies with disappointing results are often dumped --Confirmation Bias --More people recall success stories if you subliminally expect them to be effective Generalization --Investigators generalize from their data --External Validity --If its participants, stimuli, and procedures adequately reflect the world as it is outside of the investigation Chapter 2 The Evolutionary Roots of Motivated Behavior --Based in the ideas of natural selection by Charles Darwin --Evolution favors the organism that is better suited to its environment --Successful traits are carried by genes stored in chromosomes --Come in alternative forms, dominant and recessive --Genes do not directly control what an organism will look like, what its structure will be, or how its physiology will unfold -- Genes control proteins control complex structures control observable traits --Genotype is the blueprint, the phenotype is the actual characteristic --Human identical twins with the same genotypes often show similar behavioral traits than other siblings --Intellectual capacity has been proven to be genetic
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Psych1BookNotes - Chapter 1-For any mental achievement many...

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