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Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide

Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide - PSY101 Exam 2 Review Sheet...

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PSY101 Exam 2 Review Sheet Chapter 6: Motivation & Emotion Motivation- physiological and psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior Physiological and psychological factors impacting motivation Physiological: Psychological: Biological Theories of Motivation (Drive Reduction, Optimum- level) Drive Reduction: we engage in behaviors to reduce these drives (we are motivated to make these drives go away) Optimum Level: (curiosity drive) we want to maintain an optimum level of intellectual stimulation (ex. Cross-word puzzles OR monkeys opening locks) Cognitive Theories of Motivation (Cognitive-consistency) Cognitive-Consistency: state in which our cognitions are compatible with one another Incentive Theories - Goal-Setting Incentive: behavior b/c of some good thing we get at the end (positive reward—example: good grades, money) Note: Incentive must be worth while Goal Setting: (non-tangible incentive & will usually do better than just doing your best if you set a goal) S-specific M-measurable (know when you get there) A-Achievable (something you are capable of doing) R-Relevant (one that will help meet your larger purpoise) T-Time Bound (must have a time/date specified) Short term: less than a year Mid term: 1-3 years Long term: more than 5 years off What impacts goal setting? IV -> Mediator ->DV IV= Goal Setting Mediator: DV: performance on task Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (move through a linear progression) Problem: Doesn’t explain how people always act (ex.- concentration camps) Emotion & Mood Emotion: physiological changes and conscious feelings (entire body is reacting/cognative) of pleasantness or unpleasantness, aroused by external or internal stimuli (can be in or outside of you), that lead to behavioral reactions (how we act in response to stimuli) Mood: last much longer Thayer’s Circumplex Model- we can plot every emotion using arousal (you must have something inside that makes you want to do something-not always sexual) & hedonic tone (pleasantness/unpleasantness) James-Lange Theory, Cannon-Bard Theory James-Lange : physiological changes proceed & cause emotions Problem-emotions have same physiological signatures-they aren’t unique (ex. Anger & excitement) Problem-don’t always proceed (most of the time they follow) Cannon-Bard : physiological changes & emotions work 1
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PSY101 Exam 2 Review Sheet simultaneously Problem-assumes thalamus can do both @ the same time Physiological Differences Among Emotions- not unique to on particular emotion (ex. Anger & excitement) Role of the Brain in Emotion (Cortex, Limbic System, Hemispheres) Cortex: human’s the largest Limbic System: emotional center (amedugla: decides emotional meaning) Hemispheres: right more than left Opponent-Process Theory (of Emotion) Following emotional response, the brain initiates the opposite reaction in an attempt to achieve homeostasis Facial Feedback Hypothesis
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