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Psycopathology

Psycopathology - V)Mood Disorders the predominant...

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V .)Mood Disorders: the predominant disturbances lie in mood and motivation and are characterized by emotional and energetic extremes *Bipolar and Unipolar Syndromes *Bipolar Disorder: the patient endures episodes at manic and depressive extremes (w/ normal periods interspersed) (frequency, 0.5 to 1% of the population) *Mixed States : patients exhibit signs of both depression and mania * Unipolar Depression (Major Depression): the mood extreme is only one kind (frequency, 13% of all men in US and 21% of all women in US will suffer from a major depressive episode at some time during their lives) * Mania: a mood disorder characterized by racing thoughts, pressured speech, irritability or euphoria, and marked impairments in judgment. Someone may even think she is invincible * Hypomania : a mild manic state in which the individual seems infectiously merry, extremely talkative, charming, and indefatigable * Depression : *Is the opposite of mania and centers on feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and broad apathy about life; the depressed person loses interest in eating, hobbies, sex, and almost everything * Diagnosable depression , according to DSM, the feelings of sadness have lasted at least 2 weeks , and are accompanies by other symptoms such as insomnia and feelings of worthlessness, many also experience anxiety *Depressed patients also experience physical manifestations that include: loss of appetite and weight loss, weakness, fatigue, poor bowel functioning, sleep disorders, and loss of interest in sex *Depression and Suicide *Both those w/ major depression and those in a depressive phase of bipolar disorder can become suicidal *The risk of suicide is greater for people who have bipolar disorder than those who have major depression, 20% of people w/ bipolar disorder commit suicide in manic episodes… why not so likely for those that have depression? *People who have depression are in the gloomiest stage and are very lazy and tired and so they may have decided to kill themselves but have neither the energy nor the tenacity to actually do it *The Roots of Mood Disorders *Depression is thought to result from multiple contributing factors that include: genetic, neurochemical, and psychological influences *Heredity *Concordance rates for depression are roughly two times higher in identical twins than in fraternal twins (pg 616) *For bipolar disorder- if someone’s identical twin has the disorder, there is a 60% chance that he, too, will have the disorder *Unipolar and bipolar disorder may overlap in their symptoms (clinical depression resembles the depressed phase of bipolar disorder), but they probably arise from different sources * There are two separate inheritance pathways for each *Neurochemical Malfunctions
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*Symptom relief for depression is often provided by drugs that influence the effects of various neurotransmitters…depression may have arose in the first place because of some disorder in neurotransmission *Three main neurotransmitters : norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin---
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