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Flashcards - Front Back 1 Chapter 15 Case Study"Killer...

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Front Back 1. Chapter 15 Case Study: “Killer Algae!” -Alga Caulerpa taxifolia found in cold Mediterranean waters, it’s native to the warm Caribbean waters. -Spread more than 1 hectare in 5 years by way of the gears and anchors of fishing vessels. -Cold water resistant variety was accidently released into the ocean. -Invasive species overpowered the alga species native there and therefore changed the makeup of the underwater community. 2. Guilds Groups of species that use the same resources. 3. Functional Group Species that function in similar ways, but do not necessarily use the same resources. 4. Trophic Levels Groups of species that have similar ways of obtaining energy. 5. Food Web A diagram showing the connections between organisms and the food they consume. 6. Interaction Web A concept that has been introduced to describe both the trophic (vertical) and non-trophic (horizontal) interactions in the traditional food web. 7. Species Richness The number of species in a community 8. Species Evenness Relative abundances compared with one another. 9. Species Diversity Combines species richness and species evenness. 10. H = “The Shannon Index” P i = the proportions of individuals in the ith species i = species S = number of species in the community 11. Biodiversity -Describes the diversity of important ecological entities that span multiple spatial scales, from genes to species to communities.
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-Implicit is the interconnectedness of all components of diversity. 12. Rank Abundance Curves Plot of proportional abundances of each species (p i ) relative to the others in rank order. 13. Taxanomic Affinity Classification only! (ie: all have same genes) 14. Bacterial Diversity in Pastures in Scotland -Rank abundance is similar -Shannon index (H) is similar -Different bacteria composition -Few abundant groups, many rare groups 15. Species Accumulation Curves A graph that plots species richness as a function of the total number of individuals that have accumulated with each additional sample. 16. Species Composition -The identity of species present in the community. -Two communities can have the same species diversity values, but completely different species. 17. Direct Interactions Occur between two species. 18. Indirect Interactions Occur when the relationship between 2 species is mediated by a third (or more) species. 19. Trophic Cascade 1. A carnivore eats an herbivore. 2. The decrease in the herbivore increase primary producer. 20. Trophic Facilitations Consumers indirectly facilitated by a positive interaction between its prey and another species. 21. Competitive Network An interaction web that is circular. 22. Competitive Hierarchy An interaction web that is linear. 23. Dominant Species -aka Foundation Species -Can have large effects on other species and species diversity.
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