Chapter4 - Chapter 4 Crime and Social Control Chapter...

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Chapter 4 Crime and Social Control
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Chapter Outline The Global Context: International Crime and Violence Sources of Crime Statistics Sociological Theories of Crime Types of Crime Demographic Patterns of Crime The Costs of Crime and Social Control Strategies for Action: Crime and Social Control
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Crime Throughout the World There is no country without crime. Most countries have the same components in their criminal justice systems: police, courts, and prisons. Worldwide, adult males make up the largest category of crime suspects. In all countries theft is the most common crime committed and violent crime is a relatively rare event.
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Transnational Crimes Organized criminal activity across one or more national borders.
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Examples of Transnational Crimes Russian ruble, precious metals, arms are smuggled out of the country. Chinese Triads operate rings of prostitution, drugs, and other organized crime. Children are trafficked through Canada and Mexico for child pornography.
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Crime An act, or the omission of an act, that is a violation of a federal, state, or local criminal law for which the state can apply sanctions.
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Crime Rate The number of crimes committed per 100,000 population.
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Clearance Rate The percentage of crimes in which an arrest and official charge have been made and the case has been turned over to the courts
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Four Measures of Serious Violent Crime
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Major Types of Crime Statistics Official statistics Victimization surveys Self-report offender surveys
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Problems With Official Statistics Many crimes are not reported. Some reported crimes are not recorded by police. Some rates may be exaggerated.
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Structural-Functionalist Theories Strain theory Control theory Subcultural theories
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Strain Theory People adapt to inconsistency between means and goals in society. Methods of adaptation: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion.
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Merton’s Strain Theory Mode of Adaptation Seeks Culturally Defined Goals? Uses Structurally Defined Means to Achieve Them? Conformity Yes Yes Innovation Yes No
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Merton’s Strain Theory Mode of Adaptation Seeks Culturally Defined Goals? Uses Structurally Defined Means to Achieve Them? Ritualism No Yes Retreatism No No Rebellion No, seeks to replace No, seeks to replace
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Control Theory Social bonds constrain some individuals from violating social norms: Attachment to significant others. Commitment to conventional goals. Involvement in conventional activities. Belief in the moral standards of society.
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Subcultural Theories Certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes conducive to violence. Members of these subcultures adopt the crime-promoting attitudes of the group.
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Conflict Perspective Social inequality leads to crimes as means of economic survival.
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