chapter 9 review

Chapter 9 review - Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Deficient body fatness

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Chapter 9 – Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Chapter 9 – Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Deficient body fatness threatens survival during a famine or during diseases. Most obese people suffer illnesses, and obesity is considered a chronic disease. Central obesity may be more hazardous to health than other forms of obesity. These factors affect body fat distribution: gender, menopause in women, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Experts estimate health risks from obesity using BMI, waist circumference, and a disease risk profile. Fit people are healthier than unfit people of the same body fatness. Overfatness presents social and economic handicaps as well as physical ills. Judging people by their body weight is a form of prejudice in our society. The “energy in” side of the body’s energy budget is measured in calories taken in each day in the form of foods and beverages. The number of calories in foods and beverages can be obtained from published tables or computer diet analysis programs. No easy method exists for determining the “energy out” side of a person’s energy balance equation. Two major components of the “energy out” side of the body’s energy budget are basal metabolism and voluntary activities. A third component of energy expenditure is the thermic effect of food. Many factors influence the basal metabolic rate. The DRI committee sets Estimated Energy Requirements for a reference man and woman. People’s energy needs vary greatly. The DRI committee has established a method for determining an individual’s approximate energy requirement. The BMI values mathematically correlate heights and weights with risks to health. They are especially useful for evaluating health risks of obesity but fail to measure body composition or fat distribution. A clinician can determine the percentage of fat in a person’s body by measuring skinfolds, body density, or other parameters. Distribution of fat can be estimated by radiographic techniques, and central adiposity can be assessed by measuring waist circumference. No single body composition or weight suits everyone; needs vary by gender, lifestyle, and stage of life. Hunger is stimulated by an absence of food in the digestive tract. Appetite can occur with or without hunger, and many factors affect it. Satiation occurs when the digestive organs signal the brain that enough food has been consumed. Satiety is the feeling of fullness that lasts until the next meal. Hunger outweighs satiety in the appetite control system. The adipose tissue hormone leptin suppresses the appetite in response to a gain in body fat. Some foods may confer greater satiety than others, but these effects are not yet established scientifically. Metabolic theories attempt to explain obesity on the basis of molecular functioning. Quacks often exploit these theories for profit. A person’s genetic inheritance greatly influences, but does not ensure, the development of obesity. Studies
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This note was uploaded on 07/01/2011 for the course NTR 101 taught by Professor Hendry during the Spring '10 term at Holyoke CC.

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Chapter 9 review - Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Chapter 9 Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Deficient body fatness

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