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4.particle.matter.10 - Particulate Matter in the...

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Particulate Matter in the Environment Introduction Atmospheric Aerosols Properties and Environmental Behavior Aquatic Matter Properties and Environmental Behavior Summary and Conclusions
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Definition: Aerosol is a suspension of tiny solid or liquid particles in gas . (Commonly refer to the particulate component only) Size: 2 nm < diameter < 20 μm Fine particles = d p <2.5 μ m Shape: spherical & irregular Concentration: 10 2 ~ 10 5 #/cc <1 ~ 100+ μ g m- 3 Phase: solid, liquid, or complex Composition: highly variable II. Atmospheric Aerosols Aerosols = Particles = Particulate Matter (PM)
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PM Sizes (aerodynamic diameter) Nanoparticles 0.01 µm (10 nm) or smaller Ultrafine particles 0.1 µm (100 nm) or smaller PM 2.5 2.5 µm or smaller PM 10 10 µm or smaller Fine vs. coarse particle
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H 2 O s H 2 O 2003 NARSTO Assessment Atmospheric Aerosol Composition Typical composition : • Soil erosion, dust: metals/crustal materials. • Sea-salt: Na, Cl - • Fossil fuel / biomass combustion: Black carbon • Secondary inorganics: Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium • Organics: a complex mixture of many individual organic compounds • H 2 O
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Org SO 4 2- NO 3 - NH 4 + Fine Aerosol Composition Zhang et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L13801, 2007.
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Visibility reduction: Visibility definition: “the farthest distance one can see a large black object against the background sky.” Influencing factors: aerosol loading, size, RH Economical concerns (tourism) 2.5 -3 2.5 -3 Pittsburgh, USA July 2, 2001 July 18, 2001 7/25/08 1 -3 8/31/08 1 -3 Beijing, China Why do we care about aerosols?
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Satellite image of ship track over the ocean Influence of aerosol on clouds Ships burn high-sulfur fuel sulfate aerosols (CCN) clouds
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Direct scattering effect: Absorb and scatter solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation Indirect cloud effect: Act as CCN (cloud condensation
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  • Summer '09
  • debrakimbrell
  • Genetics, Particulate, atmospheric aerosols, atmospheric aerosol, Atmospheric Aerosols Properties, II. Atmospheric Aerosols, Atmospheric Aerosol Composition

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