17.hydrolysis.10

17.hydrolysis.10 - Abiotic Reactions Hydrolysis...

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Unformatted text preview: Abiotic Reactions: Hydrolysis Introduction to Hydrolytic Reactions Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Reactions and Substrates Hydrolytic Reaction Rates Summary and Conclusions I. Introduction to Hydrolytic Reactions Definition – nucleophilic substitution reaction via water. Water is capable of serving as a weak nucleophile. Some of the most common environmental substrates include alkyl halides, esters, and amides. Catalyzed in organisms by hydrolases such as carboxylesterases and amidases. Hydrolytic rates can be influenced by pH. II. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Displacement of one group on a molecule by another via the attack of a nucleophile (electron-rich constituent) on an electron-poor group (electrophile, often carbon). The attacking nucleophile must be a Lewis base (possesses an atom with a pair of electrons available for bonding; B:). Bases include HO-, HS-, CN-, H 2 O, SCN-, etc. General types include Sn1 and Sn2 mechanisms. Some General Types of Substitution Reaction Water can serve as a weak nucleophile due to the unshared electron pairs on oxygen. Sn1 Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Generally involve the brief formation of a carbocation. carbocation....
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This note was uploaded on 06/29/2011 for the course GENETICS 101 taught by Professor Debrakimbrell during the Summer '09 term at UC Davis.

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17.hydrolysis.10 - Abiotic Reactions Hydrolysis...

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