The rituals practiced in the Miniankan culture are of several practices. When defining rituals, Miller defines ritual as a patterned behavior that has to do with the supernatural realm. There are five types of rituals: rites of intensification, seasonal rituals, rites of reversal, rites of passage, and magic rituals. According to lecture, rites of intensification are defined by the rituals that celebrate the “core” values of a culture; explains how the culture and values come about. An example of rites of intensification mentioned from Holloway is Eid al-Adha (Festival of the Sacrifice), which is celebrated seventy days after the end of Ramadan (Holloway 85). This day is to celebrate the Prophet Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his only son of Ishmael at God’s command. It also celebrates the return of the faithful from the Haji, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. Rites of reversal are rituals that feature the “opposite” of what would usually be done and valued; masking and role reversal. The ritual of inversion allows social pressure to be released and provides a reminder about the propriety of normal, everyday roles and practices to which people must return once the ritual is over. An example from Miller is the carnival in Bosa. The carnival in Bosa involves social-role reversal and relaxing of usual social norms. Rite of passage marks the transition from one social role to another, which contains three stages: separation, liminal or marginal, and reincorporation, according to lecture. An example of rites of
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This note was uploaded on 06/30/2011 for the course ANTHRO 4 taught by Professor Williams during the Spring '11 term at San Joaquin Delta College.