Notes Chap 3 - Chapter Three: Ecology of the Family Family:...

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Chapter Three: Ecology of the Family Family: a microsystem; the primary agent of socialization; a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation, and reproduction. This classic definition just doesn’t fit any longer, and the changes in family structure are an example of how societal change, a macrosystem, affects a microsystem. The US Census Bureau expands the definition to include group of people who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption . Some states have expanded the definition of family to include domestic partnerships, reciprocal partnerships, or civil unions to provide rights and privileges in the areas of insurance, legal decision-making, and employment benefits, to name a few. Basic Family Structures Nuclear Family - husband, wife, children (or, the original family structure?) Family of Orientation - the family into which a child is born Family of Procreation - the family that develops when one marries (?) and has children Extended Family - relatives of the nuclear family who are economically and emotionally dependent upon each other Matriarchal - families in which the mother has formal authority and dominance Patriarchal - families in which the father has formal authority and dominance Egalitarian - families in which both sides of the extended family are regarded as equal Personal Network - friends, neighbors, co-workers, etc, who step into the traditional support functions of the extended families, primarily for people who have no extended family; people without supportive extended family and without a personal network must rely on the form network of society when they need help Reasons for insufficient extended family support include: moving, divorce, remarriage, and death. Examples of formal networks include professionals and government agencies which are influenced by politics, economics, culture, and technology Basic Family Functions Reproduction Socialization and Education - passing on society’s values, beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, skills, and techniques Assignment of Social Roles- provision of racial, ethnic, religious, socioeconomic and gender identity which involves behavior and obligations Economic Support - provision of shelter, nourishment, and protection Nurturance and Emotional Support - the first experience with social interaction Family Transitions Events which affect family ties: Divorce- a series of stressful experiences from reduction of resources to reorganization of routines, and emotional upheaval Single parenting- responsibility for full financial support, child care, and home maintenance usually has a negative effect on the quality of parenting Stepparenting - getting used to new roles and relationships
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Effects of divorce on children: a deep sense of loss, divided loyalties, and a feeling of helplessness; it must be noted that it is not necessarily the fact of divorce, itself, that causes these problems, but rather the negative effects of conflict in troubled marriages; children’s reactions depend on the personalities of those
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Notes Chap 3 - Chapter Three: Ecology of the Family Family:...

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