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Unformatted text preview: Review for exam # 1 Concepts to study Allports definition of Social Psychology- social psychology is the scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual imagined, or applied presence of others Levels of analysis for social psychologists- societal (or cultural): cultural norms, values- Inter-group: grp identity, norms, small grps research- Interpersonal: how people influenced, relate to one another (eg individuals), close relationships- Individual: personality and feel about social world Applied vs. Basic research- applied : seeks knowledge that addresses social relevant issues (ie prejudice) (healthy business, consumer, legal, environment)- Basic : conducted for the sake of knowledge alone without obvious applications (attributions, social cognition personality) Independent vs. Dependent variables- independent : the experimental factor that a researcher manipulates individual versus communal rights- dependent : the variable being measured so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable Correlational vs. Experimental research- correlational : the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables- experimental : studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant) Experimental vs. mundane realism- experimental : the degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants- mundane : degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations Demand characteristics- cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected Attribution theory (including actor-observer bias, fundamental attribution error, and Kelleys attribution theory)- actor-observer bias : we observe others from a different perspective than we observe ourselves; in some experiments this has led to differing explanations for behavior- Fundamental attribution error : the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others behavior. (also called correspondence bias, because we so often see behavior as corresponding to a disposition)- Kelleys attribution theory: uses consensus, consistency and distinctiveness to model attribution The effects of stereotypes on cognition and memory- Two types of self-fulfilling prophecies (behavioral confirmation vs. cognitive confirmation)- behavioral confirmation : a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby peoples social that cause others to confirm their expectations- cognitive confirmation : sometimes we think out belief was confirmed Reasons to study attitudes- attitudes are a central topic in social psychology- they are pervasive- they serve a number of functions- they help us interpret information- they guide our behavior Whether the following strengthens or weakens the attitude--...
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- Fall '08
- Social Psychology