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NAZZAL_Physics ch21

# NAZZAL_Physics ch21 - Chapter 21 Electric Charge 21.2...

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Chapter 21 Electric Charge

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21.2 Electric Charge:
21.3 Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials through which charge can move freely; examples include metals (such as copper in common lamp wire), the human body, and tap water . Nonconductors— also called insulators—are materials through which charge cannot move freely; examples include rubber, plastic, glass, and chemically pure water. Semiconductors are materials that are intermediate between conductors and insulators; examples include silicon and germanium in computer chips. Superconductors are materials that are perfect conductors, allowing charge to move without any hindrance. The properties of conductors and insulators are due to the structure and electrical nature of atoms. Atoms consist of positively charged protons , negatively charged electrons , and electrically neutral neutrons . The protons and neutrons are packed tightly together in a central nucleus. When atoms of a conductor come together to form the solid, some of their outermost (and so most loosely held) electrons become free to wander about within the solid, leaving behind positively charged atoms ( positive ions). We call the mobile electrons conduction electrons. There are few (if any) free electrons in a nonconductor. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1tglfpM80w&feature=related

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21.4 Coulomb’s Law This force of repulsion or attraction due to the charge properties of objects is called an electrostatic force. The equation giving the force for charged particles is called Coulomb’s law: where particle 1 has charge q 1 and particle 2 has charge q 2 , and F is the force on particle 1. Here iis a unit vector along an axis extending through the two particles, r is the distance between them, and k is a constant.

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NAZZAL_Physics ch21 - Chapter 21 Electric Charge 21.2...

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