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NHM_311_Lecture_Notes_Fourth_Exam

NHM_311_Lecture_Notes_Fourth_Exam - NHM 311 Exam 4 The...

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NHM 311 – Exam 4 The Trace Minerals Called trace because they are only in the body in small, trace amounts (less than a teaspoon) Iron Irons two ionic states: 1. Ferrous (Fe++) Reduced 2. Ferric (Fe+++) Oxidized Chief functions in the body 1. Part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood 2. Part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which makes oxygen available for muscle contraction 3. Necessary for the utilization of energy as part of the cells’ metabolic machinery Iron absorption 1. Iron in food mucosal cells in the intestine store excess iron in the mucosal ferritin (a storage protein) if the body needs iron, mucosal ferritin releases iron to mucosal transferring (a transport protein), which hands off iron to another transferring that travels through the blood to the rest of the body if the body does not need iron, iron is excreted in shed intestinal cells Iron: Heme vs. nonheme Only foods derived from animal flesh provide heme, but they also contain nonheme iron All the iron in foods derived from plants is nonheme iron Heme accounts for about 10% of the average daily iron intake, but is is well absorbed (about 25%) nonheme iron accounts for the remaining 90% but it is less well absorbed (about 17%) Factors enhance nonheme iron absorption (check in book???) MFP factor
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Vitamin C Citric acid from foods Lactic acid from foods 1. Milk, buttermilk, sour cream HCl from stomach Sugars Factors that inhibit nonheme iron absorption Phytates (soy, whole grains, and nuts) Fibers Oxalates (some green, leafy vegetables) Calcium Phosphorus EDTA in food additives) Tannic acid (in tea, coffee, and nuts) Iron Recycling Somes loses via sweat, skin and urine Tranferrin carries iron in blood Liver and spleen dismantles red blood cells, packages iron into transferring, and stores excess iron in ferritin (and hemosiderin) Some loses if bleeding occurs Iron containing hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen Bone marrow incorporates iron into hemoglobin of red blood cells and stores excess iron in ferritin (and hemosiderin) Some iron delivers to myoglobin of muscle cells High risk for iron deficiency Women in their reproductive years
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Pregnant women Infants and young children Teenagers Stages of iron deficiency Iron stores diminish Transport iron decreases Hemoglobin production declines Iron in summary Deficiency symptoms 1. Anemia: weakness, fatigue, headaches 2. Impaired work performance and cognitive function 3. Impaired immunity 4. Pale skin, nailbeds, mucous membranes, and palm creases 5. Concave nails 6. Inability to regulate body temperature 7. Pica Eating non-food substances Most common is eating clay Significant sources 1. Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs 2. Legumes, dried fruits 3. Contamination iron 4. Fortified cereal 5. Iron supplement RDA 2001 1. KNOW men and women
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2. Men: 8 mg/day 3. Women 18 mg/day Zinc Chief function in the body 1.
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