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notes - Aspen Birch o Early stages of primary succession...

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Aspen Birch o Early stages of primary succession Firmly established within 20 years o Capable of growing back quickly if disturbed Fire Logging Dominant Species o Big tooth aspen o Paper birch o Gray birch o Balsam poplar Understory o Balsam Fir o Shrubs Mountain maple Hazel Dogwood o Can take over if aspen birch is disturbed Influences o Logging throughout the 1900’s Pines were unable to bounce bacak Aspen Birch took over
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o Fire Both species able to grow back quickly Important species in recovery Paper Birch Early succesional community Usually originating after a fire Northern Minnesota Dominant species o Paper birch o Mountain maple o Beaked Hazelnut Understory o Sugar maple o Basswood o Yellow birch o Balsam fir o Herbs Bluebead lily Shining club moss Northern Hardwood Forest Late successional Stage
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Located in centralto north eastern part of the state Found mainly along the North shore of Lake Superior Develop on loamy sites protected from fire Dominant species o Sugar maple o Basswood o Yellow birch Understory species o Honey suckle o Leatherwood o Mountain maple o Beaked huazlenut Lowland Hardwood Forests Late successional communities Soils saturated periodically-not flooded Fire is rarity Dominant species o American elm o Black ash Other tree species o Slipper elm o Rock elm o Basswood
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o Bur oak o Hackberry o Aspen o Balsam poplar Floodplain Forest Annual cycle of flooding o Piles of downed trees o Ice-scarring on trees Composition similar to lowland forest Dominated by American elm and black ash Common pioneer species o Black willow o Rock Elm o Prairie Forest Border Historical o Dynamic boundary Fire Weather patterns/moisture levels o Settlement Types of communities o Brush prairies
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Burned easily Regenerated easily o Savannahs Close fire interval kept fuels low, removed oak seedlings o Riparian Moisture and nutrients provided by river Travel corridors Biomass o Most (99%) tired up in roots and trunks of trees o Has the highest biomass and productivity of the 3 biomes Climatic differences Nutrient availability o Climax forests Rate of litter accumulation=rate of litter decomp Animals and community Interaction Mammals o White-tail deer o Opossum Omnivore Only in S MN Marsupial o Flying squirrel
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Grazers, nuts o Cottontails Grazers o Woodchuck Grazers o Bats Insects o Birds Occupy different portions of the forest structure Types of habitat o Upland sites o Moist/riparian o Savanna Nesting stratum Foraging guild o Gleaners Foliage-gater food from leaves Bark-gather food from brak Hover-from foliage and bark, but hover o Ground foragers-feed off ground o Salliers-fly from perch to catch fod o Drillers (bark)-put holes in trees o Hawkers-catch insects in flight
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o predators Great Blue Heron o
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