Notes - • Aspen Birch o Early stages of primary succession Firmly established within 20 years o Capable of growing back quickly if disturbed Fire

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Unformatted text preview: • Aspen Birch o Early stages of primary succession Firmly established within 20 years o Capable of growing back quickly if disturbed Fire Logging • Dominant Species o Big tooth aspen o Paper birch o Gray birch o Balsam poplar • Understory o Balsam Fir o Shrubs Mountain maple Hazel Dogwood o Can take over if aspen birch is disturbed • Influences o Logging throughout the 1900’s Pines were unable to bounce bacak Aspen Birch took over o Fire Both species able to grow back quickly Important species in recovery Paper Birch • Early succesional community • Usually originating after a fire • Northern Minnesota • Dominant species o Paper birch o Mountain maple o Beaked Hazelnut • Understory o Sugar maple o Basswood o Yellow birch o Balsam fir o Herbs Bluebead lily Shining club moss Northern Hardwood Forest • Late successional Stage • Located in centralto north eastern part of the state • Found mainly along the North shore of Lake Superior • Develop on loamy sites protected from fire • Dominant species o Sugar maple o Basswood o Yellow birch • Understory species o Honey suckle o Leatherwood o Mountain maple o Beaked huazlenut Lowland Hardwood Forests • Late successional communities • Soils saturated periodically-not flooded • Fire is rarity • Dominant species o American elm o Black ash • Other tree species o Slipper elm o Rock elm o Basswood o Bur oak o Hackberry o Aspen o Balsam poplar Floodplain Forest • Annual cycle of flooding o Piles of downed trees o Ice-scarring on trees • Composition similar to lowland forest • Dominated by American elm and black ash • Common pioneer species o Black willow o Rock Elm o Prairie Forest Border • Historical o Dynamic boundary Fire Weather patterns/moisture levels o Settlement • Types of communities o Brush prairies Burned easily Regenerated easily o Savannahs Close fire interval kept fuels low, removed oak seedlings o Riparian Moisture and nutrients provided by river Travel corridors • Biomass o Most (99%) tired up in roots and t runks of trees o Has the highest biomass and productivity of the 3 biomes Climatic differences Nutrient availability o Climax forests Rate of litter accumulation=rate of litter decomp Animals and community I nteraction • Mammals o White-tail deer o Opossum Omnivore Only in S MN Marsupial o Flying squirrel Grazers, nuts o Cottontails Grazers o Woodchuck Grazers o Bats Insects o Birds Occupy different portions of the forest structure • Types of habitat o Upland sites o Moist/riparian o Savanna • Nesting stratum • Foraging guild o Gleaners Foliage-gater food from leaves Bark-gather food from brak Hover-from foliage and bark, but hover o Ground foragers-feed off ground o Salliers-fly from perch to catch fod o Drillers (bark)-put holes in trees o Hawkers-catch insects in flight o predators • Great Blue Heron...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course BIOLOGY 002088 taught by Professor Peters during the Spring '08 term at Winona.

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Notes - • Aspen Birch o Early stages of primary succession Firmly established within 20 years o Capable of growing back quickly if disturbed Fire

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