test 3 - Wetlands Area where land is saturated for all or...

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Wetlands Area where land is saturated for all or most of the year. Aka bogs, swamps, etc Location o Within all 3 biomes o About 13.1 million acres of remaing wetland in mn o 52% of historic wetlands have been drained 3 different types Prairie wetlands Historic coverage-7 million acres Current coverage-1.4 million acres o Lost 90% o Most drained for agriculture Result of glacial activity o Buried ice o Glacial depressions 5 wetland zones o Low prairie zone No standing water May be flooded or saturated in the spring Common plants: cutgrass, bluejoint grass, asters o Wet-meadow zone Saturated soil, perhaps some standing water Common plants: spike rush, bur-reed and hemlock o Shallow marsh zone
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Water deptch:few inches to a few feet Cattail o Deep marsh zone Water deeper about 8 feet Few emergent aquatic plants Many floating leaved and submerged species o Permanent open-water zone Too deep for rooted aquatic plants Free floating plants Zonation depends on o Water depth in the wetlands o Countor of the wetland bottom o Time of year o Amount of precipitation Water levels o Seasonal changes Late spring Large quantities of nutrients brought in o Snowmelt, spring rains Mating o Frogs o Migratory birds Summer Water levls drop due to less precipitation Frogs and toads complete metamorphosis
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Fall o Shallow wetlands may be dry o Some species go dormant Water levels o Long term changes Changes in precipitation (droughts vs wet years) Sedimentation Classification o Key elements of 3 common classification systems Presence of zones with characteristic type of vegetation Water depth Water chemistry Salinity/alkalinity o Indicated by the type of vegetation present o More common in the west(has higher concentration of calcium carbonate in the glacial till) Acidity o More common in the northeast Succession o Primary succession in the prairie biome Pond or lake Submergent stage: Pioneer plant species-algae and submerged and floating-leaved aquatics Sediments, from run off, begin fillin in basin Emergent stage Emergent plants begin to dominate the marsh
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Dense marsh Basin very shallow due to sedimentation Emergents, sedges, grasses cover entire marsh Wet prairie No standing water, basin completely filled in Trees(willows, cottonwoods) may invade the marsh in the absence of fire Succession-wet/dry o 4 stages Dry marsh Regenerating marsh Degenerating marsh Lake o Dry Marsh Drought causes wetlands to lose standing water and bottome substrate is exposed Mudflat seeds germinate, as well as typical marsh species o Regenerating Marsh Normal precipitation/runoff returns Mudflat species die, emergents thrive, productivity high Sometime later-emergents decline, open water Wetland has greatest diversity of habitats and edges
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