test 3 - Wetlands • Area where land is saturated for all...

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Unformatted text preview: Wetlands • Area where land is saturated for all or most of the year. • Aka bogs, swamps, etc • Location o Within all 3 biomes o About 13.1 million acres of remaing wetland in mn o 52% of historic wetlands have been drained • 3 different types Prairie wetlands • Historic coverage-7 million acres • Current coverage-1.4 million acres o Lost 90% o Most drained for agriculture • Result of glacial activity o Buried ice o Glacial depressions • 5 wetland zones o Low prairie zone No standing water May be flooded or saturated in the spring Common plants: cutgrass, bluejoint grass, asters o Wet-meadow zone Saturated soil, perhaps some standing water Common plants: spike rush, bur-reed and hemlock o Shallow marsh zone Water deptch:few inches to a few feet Cattail o Deep marsh zone Water deeper about 8 feet Few emergent aquatic plants Many floating leaved and submerged species o Permanent open-water zone Too deep for rooted aquatic plants Free floating plants • Zonation depends on o Water depth in the wetlands o Countor of the wetland bottom o Time of year o Amount of precipitation • Water levels o Seasonal changes Late spring • Large quantities of nutrients brought in o Snowmelt, spring rains • Mating o Frogs o Migratory birds Summer • Water levls drop due to less precipitation • Frogs and toads complete metamorphosis • Fall o Shallow wetlands may be dry o Some species go dormant • Water levels o Long term changes Changes in precipitation (droughts vs wet years) Sedimentation • Classification o Key elements of 3 common classification systems Presence of zones with characteristic type of vegetation Water depth Water chemistry • Salinity/alkalinity o Indicated by the type of vegetation present o More common in the west(has higher concentration of calcium carbonate in the glacial till) • Acidity o More common in the northeast • Succession o Primary succession in the prairie biome Pond or lake Submergent stage: • Pioneer plant species-algae and submerged and floating-leaved aquatics • Sediments, from run off, begin fillin in basin Emergent stage • Emergent plants begin to dominate the marsh Dense marsh • Basin very shallow due to sedimentation • Emergents, sedges, grasses cover entire marsh Wet prairie • No standing water, basin completely filled in • Trees(willows, cottonwoods) may invade the marsh in the absence of fire • Succession-wet/dry o 4 stages Dry marsh Regenerating marsh Degenerating marsh Lake o Dry Marsh Drought causes wetlands to lose standing water and bottome substrate is exposed Mudflat seeds germinate, as well as typical marsh species o Regenerating Marsh Normal precipitation/runoff returns Mudflat species die, emergents thrive, productivity high Sometime later-emergents decline, open water Wetland has greatest diversity of habitats and edges Wetland has greatest animal diversity and density...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course BIOLOGY 002088 taught by Professor Peters during the Spring '08 term at Winona.

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test 3 - Wetlands • Area where land is saturated for all...

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