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Unformatted text preview: E) None of the above TRUE/ FALSE: 1) Mitochondrial mutations are passed equally to offspring by both males and females. T/ F 2) It is safe to say that a maternal effect is caused by the genotype, not the phenotype, of the parent producing the egg. T/ F 3) tRNAs and rRNAs are known to be encoded by mitochondrial DNA. T/ F Short questions: 1) Briefly describe the general structures of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA. How are they similar and how do they differ? 2) What is the endosymbiotic theory? How does it help to explain some of the characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplast? 3) The human mitochondrial genome encodes only 22 tRNAs, whereas at least 32 tRNAs are required for cytoplasmic translation. Why are fewer tRNAs needed in mitochondria? 4) What are the different characteristics of disorders resulting from mitochondrial mutation? Give two examples....
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