Chapter 18 - CHAPTER 18 Regulation of Gene Expression in...

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CHAPTER 18 Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Dr. Sanghamitra Mohanty
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18.1 Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Can Occur at Any of the Steps Leading From DNA to Protein Product Gene regulation in eukaryotes is more complex than it is in prokaryotes because of: the larger amount of DNA larger number of chromosomes spatial separation of transcription and translation mRNA processing RNA stability cellular differentiation in eukaryotes ( Figure 18.1 )
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18.2 Eukaryotic Gene Expression Is Influenced by Chromosome Organization and Chromatin Modifications Chromosomes occupy a discrete territory in the nucleus and stay separate from other chromosomes ( Figure 18.2 ).
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Channels between chromosomes are called interchromosomal domains . Chromosome structure is continuously rearranged so that transcriptionally active genes are cycled to the edges of chromosome territories .
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Chromatin remodeling is an important step in gene regulation and involves changes either to the nucleosome or DNA. In transcriptionally active genes, nucleosomes contain a modified histone, H2A-Z which prevents the repressors from binding to the promoter. Histone acetylation of the nucleosome is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) and is associated with increased transcription ( Figure 18.3 ).
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Repositioning of nucleosomes allows for different chromosomal regions to be accessible to transcription proteins. The
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This note was uploaded on 07/04/2011 for the course BIO 325 taught by Professor Saxena during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 18 - CHAPTER 18 Regulation of Gene Expression in...

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