PPP_Ch 20 - CHAPTER 20 Cancer and Regulation of Cell Cycle...

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CHAPTER 20 Cancer and Regulation of Cell Cycle Dr.Sanghamitra Mohanty
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20.1 Cancer Is a Genetic Disease That Arises at the Level of Somatic Cells Cancer cells share two fundamental properties: unregulated cell proliferation metastatic spread
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Genomic alterations that are associated with cancer range from single-nucleotide substitutions to large-scale chromosomal rearrangements , amplifications , and deletions ( Figure 20.1 ).
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All cancer cells in primary and secondary tumors are clonal , meaning that they originated from a common ancestral cell that accumulated numerous specific mutations. All lymphoma cells in each patient with Burkitt’s lymphoma, for example, contain identical translocation breakpoints.
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Cancer is a multistep process requiring multiple mutations. Age-related cancer is an indication that cancer develops from the accumulation of several mutagenic events. Rates of developing invasive cancers among individuals in different age groups in the U.S. is shown in Table 20.1 .
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MOST COMMON GENETIC  DEFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH  CANCER CELLS: Genomic instability and defective DNA repair Defects in chromatin modifications Mutations in genes regulating cell-cycle Mutations affecting programmed cell death or  apoptosis Mutations in genes that are responsible for cell-cell  contact.
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Each step in tumorigenesis appears to be the result of one or more genetic alterations that progressively release the cell from the normal controls on cell growth and proliferation.
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20.2 Cancer Cells Contain Genetic Defects Affecting Genomic Stability, DNA Repair, and Chromatin Modifications Cancer cells show higher than normal rates of: mutation chromosomal abnormalities genomic instability The high level of genomic instability in cancer cells is known as the mutator phenotype .
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The genomic instability in cancer cells manifests itself in gross defects such as: translocations aneuploidy chromosome loss DNA amplification chromosomal deletions
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This note was uploaded on 07/04/2011 for the course BIO 325 taught by Professor Saxena during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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PPP_Ch 20 - CHAPTER 20 Cancer and Regulation of Cell Cycle...

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