PPP-Ch.2 - CHAPTER 2 Mitosis and Meiosis Dr. Sanghamitra...

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CHAPTER 2 Mitosis and Meiosis Dr. Sanghamitra Mohanty
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Main areas of discussion: Cell structure Mitosis Meiosis Spermatogenesis and oogenesis Electron microscopy of mitotic and  meiotic chromosomes
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In eukaryotes, transmission of genetic material from one generation of cells to the next involves mitosis and meiosis.
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Meiosis leads to production of gametes with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Mitosis leads to production of two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
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In eukaryotes, DNA resides in the nucleus and organelles reside in the cytoplasm (Figure 2.1).
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Figure 2.1 A generalized animal cell
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The cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane. Plant and bacterial cells also have a cell wall composed mainly of cellulose and peptidoglycan, respectively . .
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DNA in the nucleus is complexed with an array of acidic and basic proteins into thin fibers. During nondivisional phases of the cell cycle, these fibers are uncoiled and dispersed into chromatin. Chromatin fibers coil and condense to form chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
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Centrioles in the cytoplasm are located in a specialized region called the centrosome. Centrioles organize spindle fibers for movement of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis.
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Diploid Organisms: In each homologous pair of chromosomes, one member is derived from each parent. Sex-determining chromosomes are usually
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This note was uploaded on 07/04/2011 for the course BIO 325 taught by Professor Saxena during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas.

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PPP-Ch.2 - CHAPTER 2 Mitosis and Meiosis Dr. Sanghamitra...

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