Unformatted text preview: ons. Try to take them away from others High electronegativity. Periodic Trend Summary: Fig. 12.10, p.285 Look at the Families Group IA - The Alkali Metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) Highly colored in flames = fireworks Group IIA - The Alkaline Earth Metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)
Lose 2 valence electrons Also react with H2O to form an alkaline solution (basic), and hydrogen gas, but less violently Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g Group IIA - The Alkaline Earth Metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) Various forms of CaCO3 Group IIA - The Alkaline Earth Metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) Strong reaction of magnesium with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) flashbulbs Boron is mined in the form of Borax, and is used in laundry soap Laboratory glassware contains borosilicates Group IIIA - The Boron Family (B, Al, Ga, In, Tl) Group IIIA - The Boron Family (B, Al, Ga, In, Tl)
Aluminum metal is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust and has many uses Group IIIA - The Boron Family (B, Al, Ga, In, Tl)
Gallium Arsenide is used in the manufacture of computer chips Group IVA - The Carbon Family (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb)
Carbon is essential for life and is found in all organic molecules Group IVA - The Carbon Family (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) Carbon is found in different structures or ALLOTROPES - graphite, one of the softest substances known, and diamond, the hardest Group IVA - The Carbon Family (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) Quartz or SiO2 Elemental Si is used in the semiconductor industry Group VA - The Nitrogen Family (N, P, As, Sb, Bi) There are two varieties of P, red and white. Group VIA - The Oxygen Family (O, S, Se, Te, Po) Stratospheric ozone shields us from harmful UV The ozone radiation. Ozone is destroyed by Cl-containing "hole" over molecules used in refrigeration Antarctica Group VIIA - The Halogens (F, Cl, Br, I, At) Br2 and I2 Halogen mean "salt-former". Here sodium metal reacts vigorously with Cl2(g) Group VIIIA - The Noble (Inert) Gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe The Lights of Las Vegas Helium-Neon lasers The Transition Elements An important use of transition elements is as pigments in paints and glasses...
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