HIS271 Mid Term Review - The Columbian Exchange: The...

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The Columbian Exchange: The "Columbian Exchange" —a phrase coined by historian Alfred Crosby —describes the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the Americas following Columbus 's arrival in the Caribbean in 1492. For reasons beyond human control, rooted deep in the divergent evolutionary histories of the continents, the Columbian Exchange massively benefited the people of Europe and its colonies while bringing catastrophe to Native Americans. Food, livestock, and disease all crossed the oceans to and from the New World. Werowance: an Algonquian word meaning tribal chief , leader, commander, or king , notably among the Powhatan confederacy of the Virginia coast and Chesapeake Bay region. The Powhatan Confederacy , encountered by the colonists of Jamestown and adjacent area of the Virginia Colony beginning in 1607, spoke an Algonquian language. Each tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy was led by its own Werowance. (Smith was never going to die, Powhatan was simply trying to show his dominance) It is because of Powhatan that the colony was able to survive and thrive. He accepted the colonists because he believed them to be part of his family. Bacon’s Rebellion: an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony in North America, led by a 29-year-old planter Nathaniel Bacon . About a thousand Virginians rose because they resented Virginia Governor William Berkeley 's friendly policies towards the Native Americans . When Berkeley refused to retaliate for a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements, others took matters into their own hands, attacking Indians, chasing Berkeley from Jamestown, Virginia , and torching the capitol. This causes Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) & the development of slavery. Settlers targeted the natives The government of the colony, which wants to control the common men as laborers Nathanial Bacon: Accused of treason, due to his attacks on the natives Ends up becoming a crusader for equality He recruits a lot of supporters, they attack natives and burn rich settlements plantations and burn a lot of Jamestown After all this success, Bacon dies and Berkeley’s government is able to yet again gain control. The English crown sent war ships to aid Berkeley as a result of this rebellion… “City on a Hill”: Massachusetts Colonies vs. Chesapeake Colony Religion Proprietary colony Those who give up their lives to risk the unknown in new England, they were simply just inspired to build a new church for the people back in England to follow (John Winthrop’s’ “City on a Hill”) “City on a hill, with the eyes of all humanity upon it” sought to be a model for others to follow, due to it’s perfection since new England does not support stable crops, a more varied economy develops new England farmers raised a medley of small crops, maize, potatoes, beans etc. attended to a modest herd of livestock, nothing they were growing could have been profitable
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2011 for the course RLG RLG100Y1 taught by Professor Saleh during the Summer '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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HIS271 Mid Term Review - The Columbian Exchange: The...

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