coursehero_notesCHAPTER 8

coursehero_notesCHAPTER 8 - CHAPTER 8: Water Resources and...

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CHAPTER 8: Water Resources and Flooding Water is Natural Capital Important Properties of Water: Water has a high specific heat index . This means that water can absorb a lot of heat before it begins to get hot – in other words it can absorb a good deal of energy (heat) without a large change in temperature This is why water is valuable to industries and in your car's radiator as a coolant. Effect of High Specific Heat Index The high specific heat index of water regulates the rate at which air changes temperature This is why the temperature change between seasons is generally gradual rather than sudden, especially near large bodies of water. This property of water: moderates climate and protects living organisms from temperature fluctuations Surface Tension The strong attraction between molecules of water give water a very high surface tension. Because of this property water tends to “clump together” in drops rather than spread out in a thin film. Water droplets will try to coalesce into a larger droplet. Universal Solvent
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Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients. Ice Floats Water is unusual in that the solid form, ice, is less dense than the liquid form which is why ice floats This is important because the Arctic does not have a land mass – no ice means no hard surface
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Will We Have Enough Water? We are using available freshwater unsustainably by wasting it, polluting it, and charging too little for this irreplaceable natural resource. One of every six people do not have sufficient access to clean water, and this situation will almost certainly get worse. How much water do we have? 97.4% of the worlds water is too salty – its either in the oceans or in the ground The other 2.6% is locked up in ice caps or is too deep to be used Towing icebergs for drinking water used to be tossed around as a way to solve water shortages So only ~ 0.01% is actually available to us Supply of Water Resources
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Hydrologic cycle (again) Solar power and Gravity This cycle purifies water continuously: water is cleaned by evaporation water is filtered in the ground Natural Filtration of Groundwater – as it moves through the ground the contaminates are removed
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Groundwater There are tremendous amounts of fresh water in the ground – more than in all the freshwater worlds rivers, streams, and lakes combined Recharge areas – where water infiltrates and replenishes the aquifers Discharge areas – where the groundwater leaves the subsurface, ie springs and rivers Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Areas
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Groundwater discharges into stream Surface Water Surface runoff Watershed (drainage) basin Reliable runoff – 1/3 of total Runoff use Domestic – 10%
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2011 for the course ENSP 200 taught by Professor Coates during the Spring '09 term at Clemson.

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coursehero_notesCHAPTER 8 - CHAPTER 8: Water Resources and...

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