coursehero_notesChapter 12

coursehero_notesChapter 12 - Chapter 12 Environmental...

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Chapter 12 Environmental Geology, Geology Geology is the study of the Earth’s dynamic process with respect to it’s interior and surface structure and features. Rocks, minerals, chemicals, earthquakes, and volcanoes are studied to reveal information about our planet. Review the handout from Chapter 6 on the geosphere. Geosphere Core – central, innermost part of the Earth with a solid part surrounded by hot, liquid molten material Mantle – thick solid region that surrounds the core and has zones of molten rock that flows (asthenosphere) Crust – thin, outermost region of the geosphere **Note that the lithosphere is composed of the upper mantle and the crust! Plate Tectonics Tectonic plates – constant movement of the rigid plates due to heat (energy) flow of materials Plate tectonics is the theory that explains the movement of the plates and the processes that occur at their boundaries Plate motion has produced mountains, ocean ridges, trenches and other features Plate movement provides many minerals we use as resources Continental drift helps to explain migration and evolutionary patterns Global Geological Information Internal process that occur under the Earth’s surface
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See figure 12-3 (a) for a map of earthquakes and volcanoes along bands on the earth See figure 12-3 (b) for a map of plate boundaries Plate Boundaries Divergent plate boundaries – plates move in opposite directions Convergent plate boundaries – plates move toward each other Transform faults – plates that slide past each other External process that happen on the Earth’s surface Erosion is the process where matter is dissolved, loosened or worn away from one place to another (ex. streams) Weathering is the mechanical or chemical process that provides change to the surface matter Mechanical – physical changes (ex. frost wedging) Chemical – decompose by reaction (ex. acid rain) Rocks Rocks – large continuous part of the earths crust & many consist of 2 or more minerals Rock types – 3 broad classifications are: Igneous – formed from molten rock (ex. lava) Sedimentary – impaction of sediment (ex. shale) Metamorphic – rock that has been subjected to high temperature, high pressure, chemical activity or a combination of these (ex. marble) Rock Cycle
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The rock cycle is the interaction of processes that continuously change rocks over time Recycles materials over millions of years Slowest of all Earth’s cycling processes Concentrates the Earth’s non-renewable resources Mineral Resources Non-renewable resources – mineral resources that take millions to billions of years to occur Ore is mineral resources mined for profit
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2011 for the course ENSP 200 taught by Professor Coates during the Spring '09 term at Clemson.

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coursehero_notesChapter 12 - Chapter 12 Environmental...

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